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Full text of "Original journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, 1804-1806; printed from the original manuscripts in the library of the American Philosophical Society and by direction of its committee on historical documents, together with manuscript material of Lewis and Clark from other sources, including note-books, letters, maps, etc., and the journals of Charles Floyd and Joseph Whitehouse, now for the first time published in full and exactly as written"

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Part II 

"Journali and Orderly Book of Lewis and Clark, from 

the Fermilton River to Two-Thousand-Mile Creek 

Jug. 2J, 1804. — May 5, 180S 

Of this Edition on Imperial Japan Paper 

fifty copies only have been printed 

of which^this is 



AB BilBI HilDBiS G M/c^^;w?^^y^^'9^>/^ 

AlK IDIM MilBlDis C M/-/, //..../..^t^^^fi/^^// 




1804- I 806 


in the Library of the American Philosophical Society and 
by Direction of its committee on Historical Documents 


from other sources, includinj; Note- Books, Letters, Maps, etc., 
and the Journals of Charles Floyd and Joseph Whitehouse 


Edited, with Introduction, Notes, and Index, by 


Editor of " The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents," etc. 

Part II 



Copyright, ig04 
By The American Philosophical Society 

Copyright, ig04 

By Julia Clark Voorhis 

Eleanor Glasgow Voorhis 

Copyright, igo4 
By the State Historical Society of Wisconsin 

Copyright, igo4 
By Dodd, Mead fef Company 

Published July, 1904 


Part II 

Clark's Journal, August 25 — September 24, 1804. 
Entries and Orders by Lewis, August 26, i8, and September 16, 17. 

Clark's Journal and Orders, September 25 — October 26, 1804. 
Order by Lewis, October 13. 


Clark's Journal, October 27 — December 27, 1804. 


Clark's Journal, December 28, 1804 — February 2, 1805; Feb- 
ruary 13 — March 21, 1805. 
Entries by Lewis, February 3—13 and March 16. 


Clark's Journal, March 22 — April 27, 1805. 
Lewis's Journal, April 7-27. 


MUSSELSHELL (Part I.) 348 

Lewis's Journal, April 18 — May 5, 1805. 
Clark's Journal, April 28 — May 5. 


Vol. I— Part II 
Ahdih-Hiddisch, a Minatarre Chief Frontispiece 


Punka Indians, on the Missouri River 128 

Sketch Plan of Fortification 136 

Pachtuwa-Chta, an Arrikkara Warrior 150 

Mandeh-Pahchu, a young Mandan Indian 166 

Page from the Orderly Book, signed by both Lewis and Clark . 184 

A Mandan Village 220 

Manuscript Page by Clark, dated Dec. 24, 1804 238 

Noapch, an Assiniboin Indian 244 

War Hatchet (text cut) 251 

Battle Axe (text cut) 255 

Offering of the Mandan Indians 260 

Interior of the Hut of a Mandan Chief 272 

Sketch Map by Clark of Red and St. Peters Rivers 286 

Dance of Mandan Women 292 

Idols of the Mandan Indians 300 

Manuscript Page, by Lewis, dated Apr. 18, 1805 306 

Dog Sledge of the Mandan Indians . . . ' 320 

Scalp Dance of the Minatarre Indians 336 

Winter Village of the" Minatarre Indians 352 

Junction of the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers 368 

Tree Tombs of the Assiniboin Indians 374 



/' R M 'I H K VER M ILK) X T T E T O N R I V E R 

Clark's Journal, August 2 5 -September 24, 1804 

Entries and Orders by Lewis, August 26, 28, and September 16, 17 

QCIark:] 25"' August SatturJay 1804. — 

A CLOUDY morning Cap! Lewis & Myself concluded 
to go and See the Mound which was Viewed with Such 
turror by all the different Nations in this quarter, 
we Selected Shields ; J. Fields, W. Bratten, Serg! Ordway, 
J. Coller, Carr, and Corpl Worbington & Frasure, also G. 
Drewyer and droped down to the Mouth of White Stone 
River, where we left the Perogue with two men and at 200 
yards we assended a riseing ground of about Sixty feet, from 
the top of this High land the Countrey is leavel & open as far 
as can be Seen, except Some few rises at a great Distance, and 
the Mound v/h.\c\\ the Indians Call Mountain of little people or 
Spirits, this Mound appears of a conic form & is N. 20. W. 
from the mouth of the Creek,' we left the river at 8 oClock, 
at 4 miles we Crossed the Creek 23 yards wide in an extensive 
V'allev and Contin[u]ed on at two miles further our Dog 
was so Heeted and fatigued we was obliged [to] Send him back 
to the Creek, at i 2 oClock we arrived at the hill Cap" Lewis 
much fatigued from heat the day it being verry hot & he being 
in a debilitated State from the Precautions he was obliged to 
take to prevent the effects of the Cobalt, & Min' Substance 
which had like to have poisoned him two days ago, his want 
of water, and Several of the men complaining of Great thirst, 
determined us to make for the first water which was the Creek 

* Known locally, and named on some maps, as Spirit Mound. For description 
of its more recent appearance, see Amer. Anlir^uarxan, Sept. 1891, p. 289. — Ed. 



in a bend N. E. from the Mound, about j miles, after a 
Delay of about i hour & a half to recrut our party we set out 
on our return down the Creek thro: the bottom of about i 
mile in width, crossed the creek 3 times to the place we first 
struck it, where we gathered some delisious froot such as 
Grapes, Plumbs, & Blue Currents after a Delay of an hour 
we set out on our back trail & arrived at the Perogue at Sun 
set. We proceeded on to the Place we Camp"* last night and 
Stayed all night. 

This Mound is Situated on an elivated plain in a leavel and 
extensive prarie, bearing N. 20" W. from the Mouth of White 
Stone Creek nine miles, the base of the Mound is a regular 
parallelagram the long Side of which is about 300 yards in 
length the Shorter 60 or 70 yards, from the longer Side of 
the Base it rises from the North & South with a Steep assent 
to the hight of 65 or 70 feet, leaveing a leavel Plain on the 
top of 12 feet in width & 90 in length. The North & South 
part of this Mound is join[ed] by two regular rises, each in 
Oval forms of half its hight, forming three regular rises from 
the Plain the assent of each elivated part is as Suden as the 
principal mound at the narrower sides of its Base. 

The reagular form of this hill would in Some measure justify 
a belief that it owed its orrigin to the hand of man ; but as the 
earth and loos pebbles and other substances of which it was 
Composed, bore an exact resemblance to the Steep Ground 
which border on the Creek in its neighbourhood we concluded 
it was most probably the production of nature. 

The only remarkable Charactoristic of this hill admiring it 
to be a natural production is that it is insulated or Seperated a 
considerable distance from any other, which is verry unusial in 
the natural order or disposition of the hills. 

The Surrounding Plains is open Void of Timber and leavel 
to a great extent, hence the wind from whatever quarter it may 
blow, drives with unusial force over the naked Plains and 
against this hill ; the insects of various kinds are thus involun- 
taryly driven to the Mound by the force of the wind, or fly to 
its Leeward Side for Shelter; the Small Birds whoes food they 
are. Consequently resort in great numbers to this place in 
[ 122 ] 


Surch of them ; Perticularly the Small brown Martin of which 
we saw a vast number hovering on the Leward Side ot the hill, 
when we approached it in the act of catching those insects ; 
they were so gentle that they did not quit the place untill we 
had arriv'' within a fiew feet of them. 

One evidence which the Ind- give for believeing this place 
to be the residence of Some unusial Sperits is that they fre- 
quently discover a large assemblage of Birds about this Mound 
[this] is in my opinion a Sufficent proof to produce in the 
Savage Mind a Confident belief of all the properties which they 
ascribe [to] it. 

from the top of this Mound we beheld a most butifull land- 
scape ; Numerous herds of buffalow were Seen feeding in various 
directions ; the Plain to North N. W. & N. E. extends without 
interuption as far as Can be seen. 

From the Mound to the Mouth of Stone River is S. 20! E. 
9 Miles, to the woods near the mouth of River Jacque is 
West, to the Highland near the mouth of Soues River is S. 
70' E. to the highland opposit side or near the Maha Town 
is S. 45 E. 

Some high lands to be seen from the Mound at a Great 
distance to the N. E. some nearer to the N. W. No woods 
except on the Missourie Points. 

if all the timber which is on the Stone Creek was on 100 
acres it would not be thickly timbered, the Soil of those Plains 
are deiightfull. 

Great numbers of Birds are seen in those Plains, Such as 
black bird, ren, [wreni or Prarie burd, a kind of larke about the 
sise ot a Partridge with a Short tail, &c., 6cc., 

25"' Jug^' — 

the Boat under the Com'' of Serjl Prvor proceeded on in our 
absence, (after jurking the Elk I Killed yesterday) Six Miles 
and Camped on the Larboard Side R. Fields brought in five 
Deer, George Shannon Killed an Elk Buck Som rain this 

We Set the Praries on fire as a signal for the Soues to Come 
to the River. 

[ 123 ] 


Course Dist' & Refrf Aug' 2$'^ 

S. 72' W. I M' on the p' on S. S. ops'" a Bluff of Blue Clay which 

is on the L. S. 
West i^ M! on the p' S. S. ops'* the Bluff. 

N. 22° E. 3 Ml' to a p; of high Willows on the L. S. ops'^ a Sand 

Island passed a Sand bar on the L. S. 
N. 40° VV. I M! on the L. S. ops'* Sand Island 
S. 86^ W. i^ m! on the L. S. to a p! of Willows the camp 

26"' August Sunday 1804. — 

(Joined the Boat at 9 oClock A.M.) after jurlcing the meat 
Killed yesterday and prepareing the Elk Skins for a Toe 
Roape, we Set out Leaveing Drewyer & Shannon to hunt the 
horses which was lost with directions to follow us keeping on 
the high lands. 

proceeded on passed a clift of White and Blue or Dark 
Earth of 2 miles in extent on the L. S. and camped on a Sand 
bar opposed the old village Called Pitiie Arc. a Small Creek 
falls into the river 15 yd! wide below the Village on the Same 
Side L. S.' this Village was built by a Indian Chief of the 
Maha nation by the name of Petite Arc (or little Bow) dis- 
pleas"" with the Great Chief of that nation (Black Bird) Seper- 
ated with 200 men and built a village at this place after his 
death the two Villages joined, ap! Pat. Gass a Serg! vice 
Floyd Deceased. 

Great q" of Grapes, Plumbs of three Kinds, 2 yellow and 
large one of which is long and a j'' kind round & red all well 
flavored, perticularly the yellow sort. 

Course Distance & ref'f Aug' 26'!' 

S. 66° W. 2 Ml^ to a Sand bar Makeing out from the S. S. 
N. 82 VV. 7 M'.' to a p' of Willows on the S. S. passed an Island on 
S. S. and large Sand bar on both Sides of the river and 
Camped opposit the mouth of Arc Creek — the river 
Q below wide. 

1 Now Bow Creek, Cedar Co., Nebr. — Ed. 


[Orderly Book ; Lewis:] Or Jen August 16'* 1804. 

The commanding officers have thought proper to appoint 
Patric Gass, a Sergeant in the corps of volunteers for North 
JVestern Discovery; he is therefore to be obeyed and respected 

Serg' Gass is directed to take charge of the late Serg! F"loyd's 
mess, and immediately to enter on the discharge of such other 
duties, as have by their previous orders been prescribed for the 
government of the Sergeants of this corps. 

The Commanding officers have every reason to hope trom 
the previous faithfull services of Serg! Gass, that this expres- 
sion ot their approbation will be still further confirmed by his 
vigilent attention in future to his duties as a Sergeant, the 
Commanding officers are still further confirmed in the high 
opinion they had previously formed of the capacity, deligence 
and integrety of Serg! Gass, from the wish expressed by a large 
majority ot his comrades tor his appointment as Sergeant. 

Meriwether Lewis, 

Cap! i" U. S. Reg! Infty. 
W!',' Clark. Cp' &c. 

^Clark :] 27''' August Monday 1804. — 

This morning the Star call"* the morning Star much larger 
than Common, G. Drewyer came up and informed that he 
could neither find Shannon nor horses, we Sent Shields & 
J Fields, back to hunt Shannon & the horses, with detections 
to keep on the Hills to the Grand Calumet above on River 
Kacure (quecure) ' 

We Set Sail under a gentle Breeze from the S. E. at 7 
miles passed a White Clay Marl or Chalk Bluff under this 
Bluff [which] is extensive I discovered large Stone much like 
lime incrusted with a clear substance which I believe to be 
Cobalt, also Ore is embeded In the Dark earth, resembling 
Slate [but] much Softer, above this Bluff we had the Prarie 

1 A corruption of Riz'iere qui Court, the French name of the Niobrara (or Rapid) 
River. — Ed. 



Set on fire to let the Soues See that we were on the river, and 
as a Signal for them to Come to it. 

At 2 oCiock passed the Mouth of River Jacque [or Teank- 
/o«,] * one Indian at the mouth of this river Swam to the 
Perogue, we landed and two others Came to us, those Ind! 
informed that a large Camp of Soues, were on R. Jacque near 
the mouth. We sent Serj! Pryor & a Frenchman with M' 
Durion, the Soues interpeter to the Camp with directions to 
invite the principal Chiefs to Council with us at a Bluff above 
Called the Calumet, two of those Indians accompanied them 
and the third continued in the Boat Showing an inclination to 
Continue, this boy is a Mahar, and inform that his nation, 
were gone to the Parnies \_Panies~\ to make a peace with that 

We proceeded on about one and a half miles and inCamped 
on a bar makeing out from the S. S. the wind blew hard 
from the South. A cool and Pleasent evening, The river 
has fallen verry slowly and is now low. 

Course Disl & Refr' August 27. 

N. 73° W. 7 Miles to the upper part of a Calx or Chalk Bluff on 
the L. S. haveing pass"* a large Sand bar on the 
L. S. and two on the S. S. also some Small Bars in 
the R. 

North 3 Ml" to a tree in a bend to the S. S. pass 2 Sand bars 

in the river. 

West 2^ Ml?^ to the Mouth of River Jacque on the S. S. two 

large Sand bars on the L. S. 

S. 80° W. I y. Ml' on the Side of a large Mud bar Makeing out above 
14 the River Jacque or Yeankton. 

This river about 85 or 90 yds. Wide and is navagable for 
Perogues a Great distance, it heads with the S! Peters, of the 
Misissippi & the red River which runs into Lake Winipeck 
and Hudsons Bay. 

1 The James (or Dakota) River. — Ed. 

[ 126 ] 


28'* August Tuesday 1804. — 

Set out under a Stiff Breeze from the South and proceeded 
on pass' a Willow Island at 2 Miles several Sand bars, the 
[river] Wide & Shallow at 4 miles passed a Short White Bluff 
of about 70 or 80 feet high, below this Bluff the Prarie rises 
gradually from the water back to the Hight of the Bluff which 
is on the Starboard Side here the Indian who was in the boat 
returned to the Soues [Sieoue] Camp on the R Jacque. Capl 
Lewis & my Self much indisposed owing to Some cause for 
which we cannot account one of the Perogues run a Snag 
thro her and was near Sinking in the opinions of the Crew, 
we came too below the Calumet Bluff and formed a Camp in a 
Butifull Plain near the foot of the high land which rises with 
a gradual assent near this Bluff' I observe more timber in 
the Valeys & on the Points than useal. The Perogue which 
was injured I had unloaded and the Loading put into the 
other Perogue which we intended to Send back & changed the 
Crew after examoning her & finding that She was unfit for 
service determined to Send her back by the party Some load 
which was in the Perogue much Injur'd. 

The wind blew hard this afternoon from the South. J. 
Shields & J. Fields who was Sent back to look for Shannon 
and the Horses joined us and informed that Shannon had the 
horses ahead and that they Could not overtake him This 
man not being a first rate Hunter, we deturmined to Send one 
man in pursute of him with some Provisions. 

Course Dis: & Reffr' 28'" Aug' 1804. 

S. 76. W. 4i< Ml" to the lower part of a Bluff of a Brownish red on 

S. S. pass'? Sev! Sand bars. 

S. 60? \V. 4 M! to the lower part of the Calumet Bluff L. S. passed 

, / a p' on east Side and Several Sand bars. 

X / - 

1 In Knox Co., Nebr.,. opposite Lower Buffalo Island. — CoCES (I. and C, i, 
p. 90). Nearly opposite Yankton, a little below. — E. E. BlaCKMaN. 

[ 127 ] 


[Orderly Book ; Lewis : ] Oniers, August 28 ? i S04 

The commanding officers direct that the two messes who 
form the crews of the perogues shall scelect each one man 
from their mess for the purpose of cooking, and that these 
cooks as well as those previously appointed to the messes of 
the Barge crew, shall in future be exempted from mounting 
guard, or any detail for that duty; they are therefore no longer 
to be held on the royaster. 

M. Lewis Cap! 
1". U. S. Reg! Infty. 

W" Clark Cp' &c 

rClarkn -9''' August IVeJnesJay 1804. — 

Some rain last night & this morning. Sent on Colter with 
Provisions in pursute of Shannon, had a Toe roap made of 
Elk Skin, I am much engaged riteing. at 4 oClock P. M. 
Serg! Pryor & M! Dorion with 5 Cheifs and about 70 men & 
boys arrived on the opposit Side we Sent over a Perogue 
& Mr. Dorrion & his Son who was tradeing with the Indians 
came over with Serjl Pryor, and informed us that the Chiefs 
were there we sent Serj! Pryor & young Mr. Dorion ' with 
Som Tobacco, Corn and a few Kittles for them to Cook in, 
with directions to inform the Chiefs that we would Speek to 
them tomorrow. 

Those Indians brought with them for their own use 2 Elk 
& 6 Deer which the young men Killed on the way from their 
Camp 12 Miles distant. 

Serj! Pryor informs me that when [they] came near the 
Indian Camp they were met by men with a BufFalow roabe 
to carry them, M! Dorion informed they were not the owners 
of the Boats & did not wish to be carried " the Scioues 
Camps are handsom of a Conic form Covered with Buft'alow 
Roabs Painted different colours and all compact & handsomly 
arranged, Covered all round an open part in the Centre for 
the fire, with Buffalow roabs, each Lodg has a place for 

' The younger Dorion was afterward slain on the headwaters of the Columbia, 
while trapping for the unfortunate Astoria expedition. — J. N. Baskett. 






Cooking detached, the lodges contain from lo to 15 persons, 
a Fat Dog was presented as a mark of their Great respect for 
the party of which they partook hartily and thought it good 
and well flavored. 

The River Jacque is Deep & is navagable for Perogues a 
long distance up at the Mouth it is Shallow & narrow but 
above it is 80 or 90 yards Wide passing thro: rich Praries 
with but little timber this river passes the Souix River and 
heads with the S! Peters and a branch of Red river which falls 
into Lake Winepeck to the North. 

10"' of August Thursday 1804. 

a verry thick fog this morning after Prepareing Some 
presents for the Cheifs which we intended [to] make by giving 
Meadels, and finishing a Speech which we intended to give 
them, we sent M! Dorion in a Perogue for the Cheifs and 
Warriers to a Council under an Oak Tree near where we had 
a flag flying on a high flagstafl^ at 12 oClock we met and 
Cap. L. Delivered the Speach & then made one great Chi ft 
by giving him a Meadel' & Some Cloathes, one 1'^. Chief & 
three Third Chiefs in the same way, they rec? those things 
with the goods and tobacco with pleasure To the Grand 
Chief we gave a Flag and the parole {^certificate) & Wampom 
with a hat & Chief? Coat," We Smoked out of the pipe of 
peace, & the Chiefs retired to a Bourey \_Bowray\ made of 
bushes by their young men to Divide their presents and Smoke 
eate and Council Capt. Lewis & My self retired to dinner 
and consult about other measures. M.' Daurion is much dis- 
pleased that we did not invite him to dine with us (which he 
was Sorry for afterwards). The Souex is a Stout bold looking 

' For excellent description and illustrations of these medals (first-grade), see 
Wheeler, On the Trail of ■ l.etuis and Clark (N. Y., 1904), i, pp. 139, 140. Three 
of the medals distributed by Lewis and Clark have since been found — at the mouth 
of Wallaivalla River, at Fort Clatsop, and at the mouth of Potlatch River, respec- 
tively. — Ed. 

2 Described by Biddle as " a richly laced uniform of the United States artillery 
corps, with a cocked hat and red feather." — Ed. 
VOL. I. -9 [ 129 ] 


people, (the young men handsom) & well made, the greater 
part of them make use of Bows & arrows, Some fievv fusees I 
observe among them, notwith standing they live by the Bow 
and arrow, they do not Shoot 'So Well as the Nothern Indians 
the Warriers are Verry much deckerated with Paint Porcupine 
quits & feathers, large leagins and mockersons, all with buftalow 
roabs of Different Colours, the Squars wore Peticoats & a 
White Buffalow roabe with the black hare turned back over 
their necks and Sholders. 

I will here remark a SOCIETY' which I had never before 
this day heard was in any nation of Indians, four of which is 
at this time present and all who remain of this Band. Those 
who become Members of this Society must be brave active 
young men who take a Vow never to give back let the danger 
be what it may, in War Parties they always go forward 
without screening themselves behind trees or anything else to 
this Vow they Strictly adhier dureing their Lives, an instance 
which happened not long sence, on a party in Crossing the 
R Missourie on the ice, a whole was in the ice imediately in 
their Course which might easily have been avoided by going 
around, the foremost man went on and was lost the others wer 
draged around by the party, in a battle with the Crow" [Kite] 
Indians who inhabit the Cout Noir^ or black Mountain out 
of 22 of this Society 18 was Killed, the remaining four was 
draged off by their Party Those men are likely fellows the[y] 
Set together Camp & Dance together. This Society is in 
imitation of the Societies of the de Curbo or Crow [De Corbeau, 
Kite) Indians, whom they imitate. 

^ The " society " of warriors here described was one of the branches of " the mili- 
tary and social organization which existed among the Blackfeet, Sioux, Cheyenne, 
Kiowa, and probably all the prairie tribes except the Comanche in the South," ac- 
cording to Mooney {U. S. Bur. Ethnol. Rep., 1891-93, i>p. 9S6-989), who describes 
it as it existed among the Arapaho. • — Ed. 

^ The Crows are a Hidatsa tribe, allied to the Minitaree, and originally located 
on the Yellowstone River ; in later years, they have been gathered on the Crow reser- 
vation in Montana. — Ed. 

' That is, Cote Noir. "Our authors use the term 'Black mountains' for anv of 
the elevated country to the west of the Missouri in Northern Nebraska and both 
Dakotas." — Coues (Z,. and C, i, p. 171). 

[ 130] 


^\'.' of Auguit, 1804 — 

after the Indians got their Brackfast the Chiefs met and 
arranged themselves in a row with elligent pipes of peace all 
pointing to our Sects, we Came foward and took our Sects, 
the Great Cheif 'The Shake hand rose and Spoke to some length 
aproving what we had said and promissing to pursue the advice. 

Mar to ree 2'' Cheif (White Crain) \_f^f^hi(e Crane'\ rose and 
made a Short Speech and refured to the great Chief Par tiar 
ne arpar be (struck by the Pania) j'!" Chief rose and made a 
short speech Ar ea we char che (the half man) 3':" Chief rose 
& Spoke at some length much to the [same] purpose.' The 
other Cheif said but little One of the Warriers Spoke after 
all was don & promissed to Support the Cheifs, the[y] 
promis'' to go and See their Great father in the Spring with 
M! Dorion, and to do all things we had advised them to do. 
and all concluded by telling the distresses of their nation by 
not haveing traders, & wished us to take pity on them, the[y] 
wanted Powder Ball, & a little Milk [rum; milk 0/ great father 
means spirits.'} 

last night the Indians Danced untill late in their Dances 
we gave them \_throw into them as is usual'} Som Knives Tobacco 
& bells & tape & Binding with which they wer Satisfied." 

We gave a Certificate to two Men of War, attendants on 
the Chief, gave to all the Chiefs a Carrot of Tobacco, had 
a talk with Mr. Dorion, who agreed to Stay and Collect the 
Chiefs from as Many Bands of Soux as he coud this fall & 
bring about a peace between the suoex and their neighbours 
&c. &c. &c. 

After Dinner we gave Mr. Peter Dorion, a Commission to 
act with a flag and some Cloathes & Provisions & instructions 

* The names of these chiefs are thus given by Biddle : Weiicha ("Shake Hand;" 
called by the French Le Liberateur) ; Mahtoree ("White Crane"); Pawnawneah- 
pahbe (" Struck by the Pawnee ") ; and Aweavvechache (" Half Man ") — explained 
as probably originating in its owner's modesty, " who on being told of his exploits, 
would say, ' I am no warrior : I am only half a man." " These speeches are given 
by Biddle in more detail. — Ed. 

' The entry for Aug. 31 to this point is misplaced in the MS.; it is found on 
pp. 58-60 of Codex A, preceded by this memorandum : "omited to put in the 31st 
of August in Place." — Ed. 



to bring about a peace with the Seioux, Mahars, Panics, Pon- 
caries, [Poncas — Ed.] Ottoes & Missouries, and to employ 
any trader to take Some of the Cheifs of each or as many of 
those nations as he Could Perticularly the Seuouex [down to 
Wash") I took a Vocabulary of the Suoux Language, and the 
Answer to a fiew quaries such a[s] refured to their Situation, 
Trade, Number, War, &c. &c. This Nation is Divided into 
20 Tribes, possessing Seperate interests. Collectively they 
are noumerous say from 2 to 3000 men, their interests are so 
unconnected that Some bands are at war with Nations [with] 
which other bands are on the most friendly terms. This Great 
Nation who the French has given the Nickname of Suouex, 
Call themselves Dar co tar [Dakota — Ed.] their language 
is not peculiarly their own, they Speak a great number of 
words, which is the Same in every respect with the Maha, 
Poncarer, Osarge & Kanzas. which clearly proves that those 
nations at some period not more that a century or two past 
are of the Same nation. Those Dar ca ter's or Suoux inhabit 
or rove over the Countrey on the Red river of Lake Winipeck, 
S! Peters & the West of the Missi[ss]-ippie, above Prarie De 
Cheen (Prairie de Chien) heads of River Demoin, and the Mis- 
souri and its waters on the N. Side for a great extent, they 
are only at peace with 8 nations, & agreeable to their Calcula- 
tion at War with twenty odd. Their trade coms from the 
British, except this Band and one on Demoin who trade with 
the Traders of S' Louis. The[v] furnish Beaver, Martain, 
Loups, {IVolfs) Pekon, [pichou) Bear & Deer Skins, and have 
about 40 Traders among them. The Dar co tar or Suouez rove 
& follow the Buffalow raise no corn or any thing else the woods 
& praries affording a suff[i]cency, the[y] eat Meat, and Substi- 
tute the Ground potato which grow in the Plains for bread. 

The Names of the Defferent Tribes or bands of the Sceoux, 
or Dar co tar Nation. 

I" Che cher ree Yankton (or bois ruley) {hrule~) now present inhabit 
the Suouex & Demoin Rivers and the Jacque. (^200 men.') 

2".'' Ho in de borto (Poles) they live [rove] on the heads of Souex 
and Jacques Rivers. 

[ 13-' ] 


3'^ Me Ma car jo (Make fence on the river) rove on the Country 

near the big bend of the Missouries. 
4"" Sou on, Te ton (People of the Prarie) thc[y] rove in the Plains 

N. of the Riv Missouric above this. 
5''' IFau pa coo tar (Leaf lieds) theQv] live near the Prarie de 

Chain Near the Missippi. 
6"" Te Car ton (or Village of Prarie) rove on the waters of the 

Mississippi above Prarie de Chain, 
y'.*" A'l? If^as tar ton (big Waters Town) rove on the Missippi above 

the S' Peters River. 
8'^ JTau pa tone ( Leaf Nation ) live lo Leagues up St. Peters River. 
9'? Cas Carba (White Man) live 35 Leagues up St. Peters river. 
lO'!' Mi ca cu op si ha (Cut bank) rove on the head of St. Peters. 

II'.'' Sou on ( ) rove on St. Peters river in the Praries. 

ii'I" Sou se toom ( ) live 40 Leages up the St. Peters river. 

The names of the other hands neither of the Souex's in- 
terpters could inform me.' in the evening late we gave M' 
Dourion a bottle of whiskey, & he with the Cheifs ik his Son 
Crossed the river and Camped on the Opposit bank. Soon 
after night a violent wind from the N. W. with rain the rain 
Continud the greater part of the night. The river a riseing a 

September \'! Satturday 1804 — 

M.' Dourion lift his Kittle & Sent back for it &c. we Set 
out under a jentle Breeze from the S. (It rained half the last 
night) proceeded on pass the Bluffs comps!" of a yellowish 
red, & Brownish {i£) White Clay which is a[s] hard as Chalk 
{and much resembling it) this Bluff is 170 or 180 feet high, 

^ These tribes are enumerated very differently by Biddle, thus (i, pp. 61, 62) : 
(i) Yanktons — 200 warriors ; (2) Tetons of the burnt woods — 300 men ; (3) Tetons 
Okandandas — 150 men ; (4) Tetons Minnakenozzo — 250 men ; (5) Tetons Saone — 
300 men ; (6) Yanktons of the Plains, or Big Devils — 500 men ; (7) Wahpatone — 
200 men i (8) Mindawarcarton — 300 men; (9) VVahpatoota, or Leaf Beds — 150 
men; (10) Sistasoone — 200 men. Cf. Lewis's "Statistical View of the Indian 
Nations Inhabiting the Territory of Louisiana," accompanying Jefferson's Message to 
Congress, Feb. 19, 1806 (Washington, 1806); the substance of this "View" will 
be republished in the appendix to the present work. For modern scientific classifica- 
tion, see Powell's "Indian Linguistic Families," in U. S. Bur. Et/mol Rep., 1885- 
86, pp. 111-118. Cf IVis. Hist. Collections, xvi, pp. 193, 194. — Ed. 



here the High lands approach near the river on each Side, that 
on the S. S. not so high as that on the L. S. opposit the 
Bluffs is Situated a Large Island Covered with timber close 
under the L. S. above the Is*! the high land approach & form 
a Clift to the river on the S. S. this Clift is Called White 
Bear Clift one of those animals haveing been kiled in a whole 
in it. 

i'.' of September Satturday 1804 — 

Some hard wind and rain, cloudy all day, the river Wide 
& hills on each Side near the river, pass'' a large (i) Island 
which appeared to be composed of Sand, Covered with Cotton 
wood close under the S. S. we landed at the lower point of a 
large Island on the S. S. Called bon homme or Good Man, here 
Cap. Lewis & my self went out a Short distance on the L. S. 
to See a Beaver house, which was Said to be of Great hite & 
Situated in a Pond We could not find the house and returned 
after night Drewyer Killed an Elk, & a Beaver, numbers of 
Cat fish cought, those fish is so plenty that we catch them at 
any time and place in the river. 

Course Dis" & refr' i" Sept. 

N. 88 W. 4 M'.' to a high point of on the S. S. haveing pass'' an 
Is'* (i) on the L. S. & Several Sand bars. 

S. 75*^ W. 2 Ml' to the lower p! of a large Island on S. S. passed a 
p' on the L. S. and a Sand bar. 

S. 68- W. 4 M'' to a p' on L. S. pass^ the upper p' of the IsH SS. 
and some land with bows [boughs — Ed.] and 
evident marks of being made 24 [feet — Ed.] above 

S. 80. W. 5 M'' to a tree at the lower p' of Bon homme Island on 
Y5" S. S. haveing ps"? a p! on the S. S. a Deep bend of 

Sand and Willows on L. S. 

■2."f September Sunday 1804. — 

Set out early and proceeded on passed the Island and Landed 
on the S. S. above under a Yellow Clay bluff of no feet high, 
the wind blew verry hard ahead from the N. W. with Some 
rain and verry cold, G. Drewnyer R. Fields, Newman & 
howard Killed four fine Elk we had the meat all iurked and 


the Skins Dried to Cover the Perogue, on the Side of the 
Bluff I observed Bear Grass & Rhue, at Sun Set the wind 
luled and cleared up Cold, the high land on the L. S. is verry 
high, & uneaven, that on the S. S. from 80 to i 20 foot & is 
leavel back but fiew Small Streams falling into the river. 

Course Distance & rcffs 2'^ Sp! 

N. 75° W. 3 Ml' to the lower part of an antient fortification (i) in a 
bend to the L. S. this Course passed over a p' of 
the Is^ & Sand. 
N. 45 VV. 1 M! on the L. p' pass"" the head of the Island at J of a 
T" mile ops'! a yellow bank S. S. 

I went out and made a Survey of the antient Works which 
is Situated in a level Plain about 3 Miles from the hills which 
are high. 

A Discreption of the Fortification 

(i) Commenceing on the river opsi'd the Good Mans Island, first 

Course from the river is 

S. 76° W. 96 yards thence 

S. 84. W. 53 yards (at this angle a kind of angle or horn work) 

N. 69 W. 300 yards to a high part, passing the gateway Covered 
by two half Circler works one back of the other 
lower than the main work the Gate forms a right 
angle projecting inward. 

N. 32 W. 56 yards 

N. 20 W. 73 yards. This part of the work appears to have [been] 
578 either double, or a covered way. from this Some 

irregular works appear to have been on mounds 
between this and the river, with a Deep round 
whole in the center of a Gorge formed by another 
angle. This part of. the work is from 10 to 15 
feet 8 Inches — the Mounds of Various bights 
the base of the work is from 75 to 105 feet, Steep 
■ inward and forming a kind of Glassee [Glacis] 

N. 32° W. 96 yards to the Commencement of a Wall from 8 to 10 
feet high this Course not on the Wall but thro to 
the commencement of another detached 



N. 81° W. 1830 yards to the river & above where this banlc Strikes 
the river is the remains of a Circular work. 

in this Course at 533 yards a Deep Pond of 73 yards Diameter per- 
fectly round is in the Course of the bank which is about 8 feet high, 
from this Pond the bank lowers gradually, a bank about the same 
hight runs near the river, and must have joined the main work at a part 
which is now washed into the river, this is also perfectly Streight and 
widens from the main work, as the river above has washed in its banks 
for a great distance I cannot form an Idear How those two long works 
joined, where they Strike the river above, they are about 1 100 y'*' apart, 

[Another Description.'] 

N° I a Wall of the Antient Work Commencing on the bank of the 
River and running on a direct line S. 76? W. 96 yard, about 
75 feet baice and 8 feet high. 

2. Wall Continued, and Course S. 84? W. 53 yards from an 
angle formed by a slopeing decent N? 13. has the appearance 
of a hornwork of nearly the same hight of the former angle 
N? I. 

3. the Wall Continued on a Course N. 69? W. for 300 yards in 
which there is a low part of the wall which is Covered by two 
Circular and lower Walls one back of the other. 8. 8. which 
covers the gate way Completely, between those outer Walls 
8. 8. there appears to have been a Covered way out of the 
Main work into the vacancy between those two Walls N° 9. 
This Wall No. 3 is 8 feet high and about 75 feet Bace. 

4. a Wide part of the Wall which is about 12 feet high and 105 
feet base on the Course N. 69' W. Continued from the gate 

5. The Wall about 15 feet high and about 90 feet bace on a 
course N. 32' W. for 56 yds. 

6. the Wall Continus on a Course N. 20- W. for 73 yards and 
ends abruptly near a whole near Several Mounds prismiscusly 
in the Gorge of the Work between this and the river. 

10. N. 32° W. 96 yards across a low place much lower than the 
Common leavel of the plain to the Commencement of a wall of 
8 feet high this is an open Space, from whence there is Some 
appearance of a Covered way to the Water. 

' This matter is found in Codex N, pp. 81 -85. — Ed. 


Ancient Fortification on the Missouri River, 
sketch plan by Clark. 



Ancient Fortification on the Missouri Ri\ 
sketch-plan by Clark. 


10. is a large hollow place much lower then the plain 
12. 12. Several little Mounds in the gouge 
7. the gateway to the Strong work. 

14. a redoubt Situated on an Island which is maKeing on the Side 
next to the Main Work, the wall forming this redoubt is 6 feet 

15. 15. The river banks at the waters edge 

16. a thick Wall of about 6 feet high passing from the Rivers edge 
at the gouge of the Work perfectly streight to the bend of the 
River above and there ends abruptly where the Missouri is 
under mineing its banks on this Wall maney large Cotton 
Trees of two & 3 feet diameter, the Bank passes thro' a wood 
in its whole Course 

N° 17. 19. a Streight wall of 1830 yard extending from the Gouge of 
the strong work on a Course N. 81^ W. This wall is 8 feet 
high to a round pon (N' 18) from then it becoms lower and 
strikes the Missouri at a place where that river has the ap'"; [ap- 
pearance] of havcing incroachcd on its banks for a great distance, 
this wall passes in it's whole course thro' a leavel plain. 
18. a Deep pond of 73 yards diameter in the Wall, perfectly 

20. Thro from the extremity of one Wall to the other iioo 

21. a Small redoubt on the bank of the river. 

The Strong part of this work which must be about 2,^ of it's original 
Size Contains Twenty acres. 

The part Contained between the two Walls is about 500 acres, and 
it is Certain that those Walls have been longer and must have con- 
tained a much greater Space 

I am informed by our frencli interpeters that a great number 
of those antient works are in Defferent parts of the Countrey, 
on the Plate River, Kansas, Jacque, Osarge, Mine river &c. 
A Small one is on [an] Island opposit the one I have 
Disciibed, and two of our Party Saw two of those Antient 
f[o]rtresses on the Petteet Arc Creek on the upper Side near 
the Mouth, each angle of which were 100 yards and about 8 
feet high.' 

1 The opinion now prevails, that these "fortifications" were only natural forma- 
tions, made by the drifting sands. — F.D. 

[ 137 ] 


3'!'' of September Monday 1804. — 

a verry Cold morning wind from N. W. we Set out at Sun 
rise, & proceeded on to a Bluff below the Mouth of Plumb 
Creek [/i" yds^ on the S. S. and took an obsevation of the 
Suns altitude. 

This Creek is Small it "abounds with plumbs of a Delicious 
flavour " the River is Wide and Crowded with Sand bars, 
it is riseing a little but little timber in this Countrey all that 
is, is on the river in the Points, we came too on the L. S. in 
the edge of a Plain an[d] Camped for the night, we Saw 
Some signs of the two men Shannon & Colter, Shannon ap- 
peared to be ahead of Colter. The White banks appear to 
continue on both sides of the river. Grapes plenty and finely 

Course Dis' & refrs. 3'.'' Sept' 

West i M' on the L. S. ops!" a Bluff 

S- 35 ^^ • 3 M'^to the Upper point of some wood at the foot of the 

high land on the L. S. in a bend of the river pass 

a large Sand bar 400 y''' wide on the L. S. and a 

p' & Sand bar from the S. S. 
West 5I M'' to a obj' in a Deep bend to the S. S. pass^ a p" S. 

S. and a large Sand bar on the L. S. 
S. 45. W. I M' to the Mouth of Plumb C' on the S. S. ps^i 

und: White bank. 
South 5 M'.' to a p! on the S. S. pass"? Several Sand bars & two 

7^5 p".^ on the L. S. 

4th September Tuesday 1S04. — 

a verry Cold Wind from the S. S. E. we Set out early and 
proceeded on [to] the Mouth of a Small Creek in a bend to 
the L. S. Called White lime, at i|- Miles higher up passed a 
large Creek on the L. S. Called R. au Platte or White Paint^ 
between those two Creeks (the latter of which is ab! 30 yd' 
Wide) we passed under a Bluff of red Ceeder, at 4 Ml! \ 
passed the mouth of the River ^e Courre [rapid R) on the 
L. S. and Came to a Short distance above, this River is 152 

1 Now Bazile creek. — Ed. 



yards Wide at the Mouth & 4 feet Deep Throwing out Sands 
like the Piatt, (only Corser) forming bars in its mouth. I 
went up this river three Miles to a butifull Plain on the upper 
Side where the Panias once had a Village this River widens 
above its mouth and is divided by sands and Islands, the 
Current verry rapid, not navagable for evin Canoes without 
Great dificuelty owing to its Sands ; the colour like that of 
the Plat is light, the heads of this river is not known [;'« the 
Black Mount"' is' waters a hilly country of indifferent soil"] it 
coms into the Missourie from the S. W. by West, and I am 
told that i[t]s Genl Course Some distance up is parrelel with 
the Missourie. 

Course Dist' & refrf the 4"" of Sept; 

S. 5° W. li M! to the Mo. of a Creek on the L. S. below a Cee- 

der Clift. 
S. 35° ij Ml' to the Mo. of White Paint River on the L. S. 

Passing under a Ceeder Clift. 
West 3 Ml' to the Upper p! of Wood on the L. S. ops.' a Bluff 

of bluish Clav, a S*? bar L. S. 
N. 72° W. i| M'' to a Mound on the L. S. a Bluff on the S. S. 

several Sand bars in the river 
West ^^ Ml to the Mouth of the river ^ue Courre on the L. S. 

~g the hills leave the river on the S. S. river Crouded 

with Sand bars, & wind hard. 

[At the end of Codex B, written on the inside of the cover, 
is the following memorandum :] 

U S. Due 4° Sep; 1804 

John Potts as p[er Duebill 20.5 

Tho' P. Howard ..... 

Alexander Willard ..... 13-55 

after this I will put the Course Destance is' refferences of 
each day first and remk' after. 

[ 139 J 


Course Dis'.' & Ref" — Sept^ 5"' 

N. 85° W. 2 Ml" to a Willow p' on the S. S. a BlufF ops'! 

N. 05° W. 3 Ml' to a high part of a BlufF on the S. S. a large 
Isl:* Called Pania Is'! in Middle of the river. 

N. 58° W. 3.1 to a Creek on the S. S. psf the Is'' at i M! a Sand 
bar makeing from it. Poncarar [Ponca] River op- 
posit on the L. S. 30 y'^* 

West 3.^ Ml' to the Lower point of a large Island near the L. 

Side (i) 

N. 70° W. 1 3/ Ml' to the right Side of the S'l Island to the head 
3/ passed a Willow Is"! & a Sand bar 

September 5'* Wednesday 1804 — 

Set out early the wind blew hard from the South, Goats, 
turkeys Seen today, passed a large Island (i) ops' this 
Island near the head the Poncarars River Corns into the Mis- 
sourie from the West this river is about 30 yards wide, dis- 
patched two men to the Poncaries Village Situated in a 
handsom Plain on the lower Side of this Creek about two 
miles from the Missourie the Poncarars Nations is Small ^ 
and at this time out in the praries hunting the BufFalow, one 
of the men Sent to the Village Killed a Buffalow in the town, 
the other, a large Buck near it, Some Sign of the two men 
who is a head, above the Island on the S. S. we passed under 
a Bluff" of Blue earth, under which Several Mineral Springs 
broke out the water of which had a taste like Salts, We 
Came too on the upper point of a large Island (which I call 
No preserves Island) here we made a Ceeder Mast, our 
hunters brought in three bucks, and two elks this evening 
which we had jurked. 

One of the hunters Shields, informed that he Saw Several 
black tailed Deer, near the Poncarer Village 

1 The Biddle text states (i, p. 66) that this Ponca tribe, which had once num- 
bered 400 men, was then reduced to about fifty, who had taken refuge with the 
Omaha. Both tribes had been sedentary, but were driven from their villages by 
war and pestilence. — Ed. 

2 Now called Chouteau Bluffs. — Ed. 



Course Distance and refFerrencies. — 6'!' Sep' 1804. 
West 1.1 M'» to a p' of Wood on the S. S. opposit a Bluff. 

N. 85° W. 2_ M'.» passed a p' on the S. S. at i yi M" above which 
miles 8] '» » large Sand bar on L. S. a high Clift of Blue 

& redish soft rock, Colter joined us. 

Sep' 6'* T/iiirsJay 1804. 

a Storm this morning from the N. W. which lasted a fiew 
mmits, we Set out and proceeded on passed the head of the 
Is' which is Seperated from the L. S. by a narrow Channel, a 
hard wind from the N. W. a Verry Cold day. we camped on 
the S. S. at the upper point of Some timber. Sometime before 
Night, no timber, \_bt'ing in reac/i.'] 

I saw Several goats ' on the hills on the S. S. also BufFalow 
in great numbers. 

Course Distance & rcfferrences. — 7'*' Sept. 1804. 
N. 60° W. 3 M'^ to the p- of a Bluff on the S. S. ops^ a p! on L. S. 
West 2j Miles to a tree in a bend to the L. S. near the foot of 

^1 a round mountain resembling a Cupola ( i ) passed 

2 Small Is'"'' S. S. 

Sept. 7';' Friday — 

a verry Cold morning wind S. E. Set out at dav light we 
landed after proceeding 5A Miles, near the foot of a round 
Mounting, which I saw yesterday, resembling a dome.- Cap. 
Lewis & Myself walked up to the top which forms a Cone and 
IS about 70 feet higher than the high lands around it, the Base 
is about 300 foot in decending this Cupola, discovered a Vil- 
lage ot Small animals that burrow in the grown (those animals 
are Called by the french Petite Chien) Killed one and Caught 
one a live by poreing a great quantity of Water in his hole^ 
we attempted to dig to the beds of one of those animals, after 

1 These "goats" were antelopes {Anlilocapra Americana). This animal was 
new to science when discovered by Lewis and Clark in 1804, and was not techni- 
cally named until 1815. — CouES (Z,. and C, i, p. 109). 

2 A conspicuous landmark, now known as "the Tower." Ed. 

» Gass says (p. 51) regarding this attempt, that "all the party, except the guard, 
went to it ; and took with them ail the Kettles and other vessels for holding water ; but 
though they worked at the business till night, they only caught one of them." — Ed. 

[141 J 


diging 6 feet, found by running a pole down that we were not 
half wav to his Lodge, we found 2 frogs in the hole, and 
Killed a Dark rattle Snake near with a Ground rat {or prairie 
dog) in him, (those rats are numerous) the Village of those 
animals Cov^ about 4 acres of Ground on a gradual decent of 
a hill and Contains great numbers of holes on the top of which 
those little animals Set erect make a Whistleing noise and whin 
allarmed Step into their hole, we por'd into one of the holes 
5 barrels of Water without filling it. Those Animals are about 
the Size of a Small Squ[ir]rel Shorter {or longer) & thicker, the 
head much resembling a Squirel in every respect, except the 
ears which is Shorter, his tail like a ground squirel which they 
shake & whistle when allarm'^ the toe nails long, they have 
fine flir & the longer hairs is gray,' it is Said that a kind of 
Lizard also a Snake reside with those animals, {did not find 
this correct.) Camped. 

Course Destance & refferrences. — S"*" Sept' 
N. 35. W. 7 M'? to a p' on L. S. ops'? the house of My Troodo 
where he wintered in 96 & Seven Called the Pania 
hof in a woo[d] to the S. S. ( i ) 
N. 88° W. 10 M'f to a p! of woods S. S. one mile above the com- 
mencement of this Course the Low' p! of a Willow 
IsH this IsH is ij Ml" in length, in the middle 
ly of the R. a Small Sand Is'! at its upper extremity. 

S';- of September S/itturJay — 

Set out early and proceeded on under a gentle Breeze from 
the S. E. at 3 M'.' passed the house of Troodo where he win- 
tered in 96. Called the Pania house, above is high hills on 
the S. S. on the S. S. much higher hills than useal appear to 
the North distant 8 Miles recently burnt, pass 3 Small Islands 
at about 5 Miles on this Course on the S. S. here Cap. Lewis 
Killed a Buffalow in the river, and the Men one other Came 
to on the lower point of an Island in the midlle of the river 
Called Boat Island" and incamped, jurked the meat Killed 

1 The prairie-dog {Cynomys ludo'vicianus), then unknown to scientists ; Coues 
thinks that Clark and Gass were the first to describe it. — Ed. 

■^ The present Chicot Island ; a little above the present Fort Randall. — Ed. 















to day Consisting of 2 buifalow, one large Buck Elk, one 
Small, 4 Deer j Turkeys & a Squirel, I joined the boat at 
this Camp, the Countrey on the S. S. is pore & broken. 

Course Distance & refcrrence. — 9" Sept' 
N. 34' ^^'. 3 M'.' to a p' on an Island on the L. S. of an Is^ passed 
Sand bars. 
M"* to an upper p! of a Wood in a bend S. S. 
M'? to a p' on S. S. 
M'.* to the upper p! of a Wood L. S. 

^'" September Sunday 1804 — 

Set out at Sunrise and proceeded on passed the head of the 
Island on which we Camped, passed three Sand & Willow 
Islands, the Sand bars So noumerous, it is not worth mention- 
ing them, the river Shoal or Shallow wind S. E. Came too 
and Camped on a Sand bar on the L. S. Capt. Lewis went 
out to kill a buffalow. I walked on Shore all this evening 
with a view to Kill a goat or Some Prarie Dogs in the even- 
ing after the boat landed, I Derected Mv Servent York with 
me to kill a Buffalow near the boat from a Numb' then Scat- 
tered in the Plains. I saw at one view near the river at least 
500 Buffalow, those animals have been in View all dav feeding 
in the Plains on the L. S. every^ Copse of timber appear to 
have Elk or Deer.. D. Killed 3 Deer, I Kiled a Buffalow 
Y. 2, R. Fields one. 

Course Distance & Referrence — lO'^ Sept. 
Nonh 5 M'* to a Sani Is'? und' a Bluff to the S. S. passed 

Is^ on L. S. 
M! to a p' on the L. S. pass** the Is^ on the L. S. 
M' on the L. S. 

M ' to Ceder Island in the Middle of the R. found 
a hsh back bone pitrcfied also the h^ just below the 
Is'? on the top of a hill Situated on the L. S. 
N. 70° W. 8i M':^ to the Low.' p' of an Is^ in a bend to the L. S. 
pass the hf of Ceeder Island (2) and a large Is'? on 
the S. S. (3) & Manv Sand bars. Shallow. 
N. 35. W. I M; to the Lower p' of a Small Island seperated by a 
~£^ Narrow Channel. 



65= w. 


80° w. 


8o W. 


loC' September Monday 1804. — 

a cloudy dark morning Set out early, a gentle breeze from 
the S. E. passed two Small Islands on the L. S. and one on 
the S. S. all in the first Course at loj Miles passed the lower 
point of an (2) Island Covered with red Ceeder Situated in a 
bend on the L. S. this Island is about 2 Miles in length (i) 
below this on a hill on the L. S. we found the back bone of a 
fish, 45 feet long tapering to the tale, Some teeth &c. those 
joints were Seperated and all Petrefied. opposit this Island 
i\ Miles from the river on the L. S. is a large Salt Spring of 
remarkable Salt Water, one other high up the hill -| M' not 
So Salt, we proceeded on under a Stiff Breeze, three Miles 
above Ceder Island passed ?. large Island on the S. S. no water 
on that Side. (3) Several elk Swam to this Island passed 
a Small Island near the center of the river, of a Mile in length, 
and Camped on one above Seperated from the other by a Nar- 
row Chanel, those Islands are Called Mud Islands. the 
hunters killed 3 Buffalow & one Elk to day. The river is 
falling a little. Great number of Buffalow & Elk on the hill 
Side feeding deer scerce 

Course Distance & refFi 11'?' Sep" 

N. 35° W. 4^ M'': to the lower p' of an Island, passed the Is'! on 
which we Camp'? 

N. 70° W. 2 M'" to the head of the Island on its L. S. 

N. 45° W. 3 JVm to a p' on the L. S. below an Island ( i) 

N. 50'? W. 2 M'f to the Upper p' of an Island on the S. S. ; passed 
one on the L. S. ops'? to which at | of a Mile is a 
Village of the Barking Squirel L. S. 

West 4I A-I'* to a p' on the L. S. passed an Is'? on the S. S. 

~[^ just above the one mentioned in the last Course. 

Sep'. 11": Tuesday 1804 — 

A cloudy morning. Set out verry early, the river wide & 
Shallow the bottom narrow, & the river crouded with Sand 
bars, passed the Island on which we lay at one mile, Passed 
three Islands one on the L. S. and 2 on the S. S. opposit the 
Island on the L. S. I saw a Village of Barking Squirel 
[ 144] 


[prairie-dog — Ed.] 970 y''.' long, and 800 y"*.' Wide Situated 
on ajentle Slope of a hill, those anamals are noumerous, 1 
killed 4 with a View to have their Skins Stufed. 

here the Man who left us with the horses 22 {/6) days ago 
George Shannon He started 26 Aug'.) and has been a head ever 
since joined us nearly Starved to Death, he had been 12 days 
without any thing to eate but Grapes & one Rabit, which he 
Killed by shooting a piece of hard Stick in place of a ball. 
This Man Supposeing the boat to be a head pushed on as long 
as he could, when he became weak and feable deturmined to 
lay by and waite for a tradeing boat, which is expected, Keeping 
one horse for the last resorse, thus a man had like to have 
Starved to death in a land of Plenty for the want of Bullitts or 
Something to kill his meat, we Camped on the L. S. above 
the mouth of a run a hard rain all the afternoon, & most 
of the night, with hard wind from the N. W. I walked on 
Shore the forepart of this day over Some broken Country 
which Continues about 3 Miles back & then is leavel & rich 
all Plains, I saw Several foxes & Killed a Elk & 2 Deer & 
Squirels. the men with me killed an Elk, 2 Deer & a Pelican 

Course Distance & refF'* Sept' 1 1'*" 

N. 45° W. 4 Miles to a point of wood on the L. S. Passed an Island 
in the Center of the river and several Sand bars (1) on 
A which we found great dificueltv in passing the Water 
being verrv Shallow 

Sep'. 12'* H'ednesday 1804 — 

A Dark Cloudy Day the wind hard from the N. W. We 
Passed (i) a Island in the middle of the river at the head of 
which we found great dificuelty in passing between the Sand 
bars the Water Swift and Shallow, it took ^ of the day to 
make one mile, we Camped on the L. S. ops^ a Village of 
Barking Prarie Squirels 

I walked out in the morn:g and Saw Several Villages of 
those little animals, also a great number of Grous & 3 Foxes, 
and observed Slate & Coal Mixed, Some verrv high hills on 
each Side of the river, rain a little all day. 

VOL. ,.-.0 [i_^3] 


Course Distance and refFerences Sep" 13'!" 

N. 45° E. I J M'? on the L. S. a Sand bar Makeing out. 

N. 30° E. I Ml on the L. Side. 

N. 60° W. I M! on the L. S. to a Clift. 

N. 64° W. 2# M'' on the L. S. to the Commencement of a wood 

passing under a Bluff of Slate & Coal, & a Sand 

bar opposit. 
North 1 1 M'f to a p" of high Land on the S. S. pass'? Sand bars 

on both Sides, Shallow 
N. 10° W. 4 M'.' to the lower p! of a timber passing under a Bluff, 
Y2 a Sand & Willow Island on the L. S. 

ly". Sep':" Thursday 1S04 — 

A Dark drizzley Day, G. D. Cought 4 Beaver last night 
the wind from the NW. Cold Set out early and proceeded 
on verry well, passed a number of Sand bars, Cap! Lewis 
Killed a Porcupin on a Cotton tree feeding on the leaves & 
bowers [boughs — Ed.] of the said tree, the water is verry 
Shallow (i« places) being Crowded with Sand bars Camped 
on the S. Side under a Bluff, the Bluff on the S. S. not so 
much impregnated with mineral as on the L. S. Muskeetors 
verry troublesom. 

Course Distance and refurences Sep! 14 

N. 68° VV. 2 1 M'i* to a p' of high Land on the L. S. pass'? a round 

Island on the S. S. 
S. 70° W. 2I M'^ to a tree in the p' on the L. S. passed the Mo. 

of a run on the L. S. 
N. 4° W. 2i M'^ to the mouth of a Small Creek ^ on the bend to 

the L. S. 
N. 10° E. i\ W't to to the Mouth of a Creek on the L. S. passed 
"^ a bad Sand bar. 

14'/' Sep'. Friday 1804. — 

Set out early proceeded on Passed several Sand bars the 
river wide and Shallow. 3 beaver caught last night, Drizelev 
rain in the forepart of the day. Cloudy and disagreeable. I 

1 A little above the present site of Brule City, S. D. — CouEs (/.. and C, i, 
p. 1.6). 

[ 146 ] 


walked on Shore with a view to find an old Vulcanoe, Said 
to be in this neighbourhood by M: J. McKey of S' Charles. 
I walked on Shore the whole day without Seeing any appear- 
ance of the Vulcanoe, in my walk I Killed a Buck Goat 
[antelope— E D.J of this Countrey, about the hight of the 
Grown Deer, its body Shorter the Horns which is not very 
hard and forks ^^ up one prong Short the other round & 
Sharp arched, and is imediately above its Eyes the Colour is 
a light gray with black behind its ears down its neck, and its 
face white round its neck, its Sides and its rump round its tail 
which is Short & white: Verry actively made, has only a 
pair of hoofs to each foot, his brains on the back of his head, 
his Norstrals large, his eyes like a Sheep he is more like the 
Antilope or Gazella of Africa than any other Species of Goat. 
Shields killed a Hare like the mountain hare of Europe, waigh- 
ing 6\ pounds (altho pore) his head narrow, its ears large i, e. 
6 Inches long & 3 Inches Wide one half of each White, the 
other & out part a lead Grey from the toe of the hind foot 
to toe of the for foot is 2 feet 11 Inches, the hith is 1 foot i 
Inch & 2^, his tail long thick & white.' 

The rain Continued the Greater part of the day in My 
ramble I observed, that all those parts of the hills which was 
clear of Grass easily disolved and washed into the river and 
bottoms, and those hils under which the river runs, Sliped 
into It and disolves and mixes with the water of the river, the 
bottoms of the river was covered with the water and mud 
frome the hills about three Inches deep, those bottoms under 
the hils which is covered with Grass, also receives a great 
quantity of mud. 

Passed 2 Small Creeks on the L. S. and Camped below the 
third, (the place that Shannon the man who went a head lived 
on grapes) Som heavy Showers of rain all wet, had the 
Goat & rabit Stufed rained all night. 

1 The northern jackass-rabbit [Leptis campestris). — Ed, 

[ 147 ] 


Course Distance & refFerences is'!" Sep! 

N. 50° E 2 M'^ to the p' Mouth of White River (i) L. S. passed 

Sand bars. Si' 
N. 26° E li M'^ to a p' on the L. S. a Bluff on the S. S. 
N. 10° W. y^ M'f on the L. S. to the Commencement of a Bluff of 

black Slate 
N. 30° W. 2 M'? to the lower p' of an Island Situated near the L 

Side (2) 
North 2 Miles to the Mouth of a Creek on the L. S. a point 

"g of high land opposit under which we camped. 

I 5''! September Satturday 1S04 — 

Set out early passed the mo. of the Creek, and the inouth 
of White river, (i) Cap. Lewis and my self went up this 
river a Short distance and crossed, found that this differed 
verry much from the Plat or que courre, threw out but little 
Sand, about 300 yards wide, the water confin? within 150 
yards, the current regular & Swift much resembling the 
Missourie, with Sand bars from the Points, a Sand Island in 
the mouth, in the point is a butifull Situation for a Town 3 
gradual assents, and a much greater quantity of timber about 
the mouth of this river than useal, we concluded to send 
Some distance up this river detached Sj' Gass & R. Fields. 
We proceeded on passed a Small (2) Island Covered with 
Ceeders on [it] I saw great Numbers of Rabits & Grapes, 
this Island is Small & Seperated from a large Sand Is^ at its 
upper point by a narrow Channel, & is Situated Nearest the 
L. Side. Camped on the S. S. opposit the mouth of a large 
Creek on which there is more timber than is useal on Creeks 
of this Size, this Creek raised 14 feet the last rains. I killed a 
Buck Elk & Deer, this evening is verry Cold, Great Many 
W^olves of Diffrent sorts howling about us. the wind is hard 
from the NW. this evening. 



lb" Sep' 
N. 72° E. i^ Miles to a p! on the L. S. and came too (i) 

16'* of September Sunday 1804 — 

We Set out verry early & proceed'd on i^ Miles between 
Sand bars and Came too on the L. S. (i) deturmined to dry 
our wet thi[n]gs and liten the boat which we found Could not 
proceed with the present load \as fast as we desired owing to 
Sand bars~\ for this purpose we concluded to detain the 
Perogue we had intended to send back & load her out of 
the boat & detain the Soldiers untill Spring & Send them 
from our Winter quarters. We put out those articls which 
was wet, Chan'd the boat & perogues, examined all the 
Lockers Bails &c &c &c. 

This Camp is Situated in a butifull Plain Serounded with 
Timber to the extent of ^ of a mile in which there is great 
quantities of fine Plumbs The two men detachf up the 
White river joined us here & intormed that the [river] as far 
as they were up had much the appearance of the Missuorie 
Som Islands & Sands little Timber, [£/;«] (much Signs of 
Beaver, Great many buffalow) & Continud its width, they 
Saw as well as my self Pine burs & Sticks of Birch in the 
Drift wood up this river, they Saw also Number of Goats, 
Such as I Killed, also Wolves near the Buffalow. falling 
[fallow] Deer, & the Barking Squrils Villages. Cap. Lewis 
went to hunt & See the Countrey near the Kamp he Killed 
a Butfalow & a Deer 

Cloudy all day I partly load the emptv Perogue out of the 
Boat. I killed 2 Deer & the party 4 Deer & a Buffalow 
this we Kill for the Skins to Cover the Perogues, the meat too 
pore to eat. Cap. Lewis went on an Island above our Camp, 
this Island is ab! one mile long, with a great perpotion Ceder 
timber near the middle of it. 

I gave out a flannel Shirt to each man, & powder to those 
who had expended thers. 



TLewis : '] Sunday, September i6'*, 1804. 

This morning set out at an early hour, and come too at h 
after 7 A. M. on the Lard, shore i\ miles above the mouth 
of a small creek, which we named Corvus^ in consequence of 
having kiled a beatiful bird of that genus near it. we con- 
cluded to ly by at this place the ballance of this day and the 
next, in order to dry our baggage which was wet by the heavy 
showers of rain which had fallen within the last three days, 
and also to lighten the boat by transfering a part of her lading 
to the red perogue, which we now determined to take on with 
us to our winter residence wherever that might be ; while 
some of the men were imployed in the necessary labour others 
were dressing of skins washing and mending their cloaths &c. 
Capt. Clark and myself kiled each a buck immediately on 
landing near our encampment ; the deer were very gentle and 
in great numbers in this bottom which had more timber on it 
than any part of the river we had seen for many days past, 
consisting of Cottonwood Elm, some indifferent Ash and a 
considerable quan[ti]ty of a small species of white oak which 
[was]^ loaded with acorns of an excellent flavor [having]^ very 
little of the bitter roughness of the nuts of most species of 
oak, the leaf of this oak is small pale green and deeply 
indented, (not copied for Dr. Barton) it seldom rises higher 
than thirty feet is much branched, the bark is rough and thick 
and of a light colour ; the cup which contains the acorn is 
fringed on it's edges and imbraces the nut about one half; 
the acorns were now falling, and we concluded that the number 
of deer which we saw here had been induced thither by the 
acorns of which they are remarkably fond, almost every 
species of wild game is fond of the acorn, the BufFaloe Elk, 
Deer, bear, turkies, ducks, pigians and even the wolves feed 
on them ; we sent three hunters out who soon added eight 
deer and two Bufi^alo to our strock of provisions ; the Buffaloe 

> This entry, and another which is here inserted after Clark's for next day 
(Sept. 17), may be found in a fragment designated as Codex Ba. — Ed. 

^ This name became Crow Creek on the maps. — Ed. 

' These two words in brackets are conjectural readings, the MS. being torn where 
they occur. — Ed. 


. '■/„:■■/»,//..„„'//„„„> 



were so pour that we took only the tongues skins and marrow 
bones ; the skins were particularly acceptable as we were in 
want of a covering tor the large perogue to secure the baggage ; 
the clouds during this day and night prevented my making 
any observations. Sergl Gass and Reubin Fields whom we 
had sent out yesterday to explore the White river returnd at 
four oclock this day and reported that they had followed the 
meanders of that stream about 12 miles it's general course 
[is] West, the present or principal channel 150 yards wide; 
the coulour of the water and rapidity and manner of runing 
resembled the Missouri precisely; the country broken on the 
border of the river about a mile, when the level planes com- 
mence and extend as far as the eye can reach on either side; 
as usual no timber appeared except such as from the steep 
declivities of hills, or their moist situations, were sheltered 
from the effects of the fire, these extensive planes had been 
lately birnt and the grass had sprung up and was about three 
inches high, vast herds of Buffaloe deer Elk and Antilopes 
were seen feeding in every direction as far as the eye of the 
observer could reach. 

White River I 7"" Sep! Plomb Camp. 

Course Distance & refFerrence 

[Not given. — Ed.] 

17'* of September Monday 1S04 — 

Dried all our wet articles, this fine Day, Cap! Lewis went 
out with a View to See the Countrey and its productions, he 
was out all day he killed a Buffalow and a remarkable Bird 
(Magpy) of the Corvus Species long tail the upper part of the 
feathers & also the wings is of a purplish variated Green, the 
back & a part of. the wing feathers are white edged with black, 
white bellv, while from the root of the wings to Center of the 
back is White, the head nake [neck — Ed.] breast & other 
parts are black the Beeke like a Crow, ab! the Size of a large 
Pigion. a butifull thing. 



I took, equal altitudes and a meridian altitude. Cap! Lewis 
returned at Dark, Colter Killed a Goat like the one I killed 
and a curious kind of Deer [Mule Deer) of a Dark gray Col' 
more so than common, hair long & fine, the ears large & long, 
a Small reseptical under the eyes; like an Elk, the Taile about 
the length of Common Deer, round (like a Cow) a tuft of 
black hair about the end, this Spec[i]es of Deer jumps like a 
goat or Sheep 

8 fallow Deer 5 Common & 3 Buffalow killed to day. 
Cap! Lewis saw a hare & killed a Rattle snake in a village of 
B.[arking — Ed.] Squarels the wind from S. W. Dryed 
our provisions, Some of which was much Damaged. 

[[Lewis:] Monday September ijth. 1804. 

Having for many days past confined myself to the boat, I 
determined to devote this day to amuse myself on shore with 
my gun and view the interior of the country lying between the 
river and the Corvus Creek, accordingly before sunrise I set 
out with six of my best hunters, two of whom I dispatched to 
the lower side of Corvus creek, two with orders to hunt the 
bottums and woodland on the river, while I retained two 
others to acompany me in the intermediate country, one 
quarter of a mile in rear of our camp which was situated in a 
fine open grove of cotton wood passed a grove of plumb trees 
loaded with fruit and now ripe, observed but little difference 
betwen this fruit and that of a similar kind common to the 
Atlantic States, the trees are smaller and more thickly set. 
this forrest of plumb trees garnish a plain about 20 feet more 
elivated than that on which we were encamped ; this plain 
extends back about a mile to the foot of the hills one mile 
distant and to which it is gradually ascending this plane 
extends with the same bredth from the creek below to the 
distance of near three miles above parrallel with the river, 
and it is intirely occupyed by the burrows of the barking 
squiril hertefore described ; this anamal appears here in infinite 
numbers and the shortness and virdu[r]e of grass gave the 


plain the appearance throughout it's whole extent of beatifull 
bowling-green in fine order, it's aspect is S. E. a great 
number of wolves of the small kind, halks [hawks — Eu.] and 
some pole-cats were to be seen. I presume that those anamals 
feed on this squirril. found the country in every direction for 
about three miles intersected with deep revenes and steep 
irregular hills of lOO to 200 feet high; at the tops of these 
hills the country breakes of[f] as usual into a fine ieavel plain 
extending as far as the eye can reach, from this plane I had 
an extensive view of the river below, and the irregular hills 
which border the opposite sides of the river and creek, the 
surrounding country had been birnt about a month before and 
young grass had now sprung up to hight of 4 Inches present- 
ing the live green of the spring to the West a high range of 
hills, strech across the country from N. to S. and appeared 
distant about 20 miles ; they are not very extensive as I could 
plainly observe their rise and termination no rock appeared 
on them and the sides were covered with virdu[r]e similar to 
that of the plains this senery already rich pleasing and beati- 
ful was still farther hightened by immence herds of Buffaloe, 
deer Elk and Antelopes which we saw in every direction feed- 
ing on the hills and plains. I do not think I exagerate when 
I estimate the number of Bufi^aloe which could be com- 
pre[hend]ed at one view to amount to 3000. my object was 
if possible to kill a female Antelope having already procured a 
male ; I pursued my rout on this plain to the west flanked by 
my two hunters untill eight in the morning when I made the 
signal for them to come to me which they did shortly after, 
we rested our selves about half an hour, and regailed ourselves 
on half a bisquit each and some jirks of Elk which we had 
taken the precaution to put in our pouches in the morning 
before we set out, and drank of the water of a small pool 
which had collected on this plain from the rains which had 
fallen some days, before, we had now after various windings 
in pursuit of several herds of antelopes which we had seen on 
our way made the distance of about eight miles from our camp, 
we found the Antelope extreemly shye and watchfull insomuch 
that we had been unable to get a shot at them ; when at rest 



they generally seelect the most elivated point in the neighbour- 
hood, and as thev are watchfull and extreemly quick of sight 
and their sense of smelling very accute it is almost impossible 
to approach them within gunshot ; in short they will fre- 
quently discover and flee from you at the distance of three 
miles. I had this day an opportunity of witnessing the agility 
and the superior fleetness of this anamal which was to me 
really astonishing. I had pursued and twice surprised a small 
herd of seven, in the first instance they did not discover me 
distinctly and therefore did not run at full speed, tho' they 
took care before they rested to gain an elivated point where it 
was impossible to approach them under cover, except in one 
direction and that happened to be in the direction from which 
the wind blew towards them ; bad as the chance to approch 
them was, I made the best of my way towards them, fre- 
qeuntly peeping over the ridge with which I took care to 
conceal myself from their view the male, of which there was 
but one, frequently incircled the summit of the hill on which 
the females stood in a group, as if to look out for the approach 
of danger. I got within about 200 paces of them when they 
smelt me and fled ; I gained the top of the eminence on which 
they stood, as soon as possible from whence I had an exten- 
sive view of the country the antilopes which had disappeared 
in a steep reveene now appeared at the distance of about three 
miles on the side ot a ridge which passed obliquely across me 
and extended about four miles, so soon had these antelopes 
gained the distance at which they had again appeared to my 
view I doubted at ferst that they were the same that I had just 
surprised, but my doubts soon vanished when I beheld the 
rapidity of their flight along the ridge before me it. appeared 
reather the rappid flight of birds than the motion of quad- 
rupeds. I think I can safely venture the asscertion that the 
speed of this anamal is equal if not superior to that of the 
finest blooded courser, this morning I saw' 

1 The sentence remains unfinished. At the bottom of the page is a memoran- 
dum ; " This a part of N". i." — Ed. 



45. E. I 


25° E. 2 


H- E. 11^ 


10. w. ly. 


22. W. I 


Course Distance & refferences iS'."" Sep'/ 

M. to the lower p' of an Island ( 1 ) 

Miles to a p! on the L. S. passed the IsH at one mile 

and some Sand bars making from it, a Creek on 

the S. S. ops') the upper point, 
i^ M'* to a p' of Willows on the L. Side. 
M'' to a point of wood on the L. S. 
Mile to a p] on the L. S. and the upper part of the 


September 18"? Tuesday 1804 — 

Wind from the N W. we Set out early the boat much 
lightened, the wind a head proceed on verry Slowly (i) 
Passed an Island about the middle of the river at i Mile this 
Island is about a Mile long, and has a great perpotion of red 
Ceder on it,' a Small Creek comes in on the S. S. opposit the 
head of the Island, proceeded on passed many Sand bars and 
Camped on the L. S. before night the wind being verry hard 
& a head all Day. the hunters Killed 10 Deer to day and a 
Prarie wolf, had it all jurked & Skins Stretch'! after Camping. 

I walked on Shore Saw Goats, Elk, Buffalow, Black tail 
Deer, & the Common Deer, I Killed a Prarie Wollf, about 
the Size of a gray tox bushey tail head & ears like a Wolf, 
Some tur Burrows in the ground and barks like a Small Dog. 

What has been taken heretofore for the Fox was those 
Wolves, and no Foxes has been Seen ; The large Wolves 
are verry numourous, they are of a light col' large & has long 
hair with Coarse fur." 

Some Goats of a Different Kind wer Seen vesterdav great 
many Porcupin rabits & Barking Squirils in this quarter. 
Plumbs & grapes. 

' On this island was the old site of Fort Recovery ; on the west bank of the river 
was Fort Cedar (aux Cedres), a post of the Missouri Fur Company. — CouES (i. 
anJ C, i, p. 122). 

- The prairie wolf, or coyote {Cants tatrans), and the great gray Western wolf 
(C lupus occidentalis) ; the latter was wont to prowl about buffalo herds. — Ed. 

[ 155 ] 

N. 43- 



N. 54- 



N. 70? 






N 50? 




Course Distance & refFerences Sep' ig'!" 
N. 50° W. 3 Miles to a p' of wood on the S. S. opposit is a BlufF 

on L. S. ( i) 
North 4 Miles to the Lower p' of prospect Island ops'* the 3 

rivers on the S. S. (2) 
N. 30° W. 2y. Miles to the Upper p' of the Island ps'' the 3 
rivers. (2) 
Miles on the L. S. pass'! a Creek (3) 
M'f to a p' on the S. S. 

M's to a BlufF on the L. S. passed a Creek (4) 
M'? to a timber on the L. S. passed a Creek (5) 
M'' to the Upper p! of an Island at the Commencem" of 
25 1/ the Big bend. (6) 

19'-;' of September IVednesday 1S04 — 

Set out early, a cool morning verry clear the wind from the 
S. E. a Bluff on the L. S. here commences a Butifull Coun- 
trev on both Sides of the Missourie. (2) passed a large Island 
called Prospect Island opposit this Is^ the 3 rivers Corns in, 
passing thro a butifull Plain, here I walked on Shore & 
Killed a fat Cow & Sent her to the boat and proceeded on to 
the first of the 3 rivers, this river is about 35 yards wide con- 
tains a good deel of water, I walked up this river 2 miles & 
cross, the bottom is high and rich Some timber, I crossed & 
returned to the mouth, & proceeded up one mile to the 2? river 
which is Small 12 yards wide, and on it but little timber, on 
this Creek the Sioux has frequently Camped, as appears by 
the Signs, the lands between those two Creeks is a purpen- 
dicular bluff of about 80 feet with a butifull Plain & gentle 
assent back, a Short distance above the 2".'' a 3'.'' Creek Comes 
into the river in 3 places scattering its waters over the large 
timbered bottom, this Creek is near the Size of the Middle 
Creek Containing a greater quantity of water, those rivers is 
the place that all nations who meet are at peace with each other, 
called the Seoux pass of the 3 rivers.' 

1 Thus named, "as the Sioux generally cross the Missouri at this place. These 
streams have the same right of asylum, though in a less degree than Pipestone Creek 
already mentioned." — BiDDLE (i, p. 76). 

The present names of these streams are (in ascending order) Crow, Wolf, and 



The boat proceeded on pass"! the Island (3) passed a Creek 
15 yds. Wide on the L. Side (4) passed a Creek on the L. 
S. 20 yards wide which 1 call Elm Creek passing thro' a high 
Plain (5) passed a Creek on the L. S. 18 y" above which the 
boat Came too, I joined them late at night, and Call this 
Creek Night Creek the wind favourable all Day, I killed 
a fat buck Elk late and could only get his Skin and a Small 
part of his flesh to Camp. My Servent Killed a Buck, the 
Crew in the boat Killed 2 bufFalow in the river. The Hunters 
on Shore Killed 4 Deer with black tails one of which was a 
Buck with two main Prongs on each Side forked equally, 
which I never before Seen. I saw Several large gangs of 
Buffalow 2 large Herds of Elk & goats &c. (6) pass a Small 
Island on the S. S. opposit to this Island on the L. S. a 
Creek of about 10 yards wide Coms in passing thro a plain in 
which great quantites of the Prickley Pear grows, I call this 
Creek Prickley Pear Creek, this \sY. is called the lower Island 
it is Situated at the Commencement of what is Called & 
Known by the Grand de Tortu [Detour^ or Big Bend of the 

Course Distance and refFerences — 20'!' Sept. (Big Bend) 

From the lower Islands upper p! 

North 4 M'' to a p! on the L. S. Passed one on the S. S. above 

the Island about one & ^ M'? 
N. 10° W. i.i M'' on the L. Side 
N. 22° W. 3 M'f on the L. Side p-! a s'! bj 
N. 60? VV 2 Ml^ on the L. Side. 
West 3 Ml^ on the L. S. 

S. 73° VV. y/^ W^ on the L. Side 
South 4 Ml^ on the L. S. passed a Small Island on the L. S. a 

Small run ops'! S. S. (i) 
S. 74° E. 31^ M'? to a p! of wood on the L. S. Camped (2) 
S. 56° E. 31^ M'? to a p' on the S. S. ops'' a high hill (3) 
S. 28° E. 2 M'' to a Ceder Valey in a bend on the L. S. at this 
^^ place the gorge is 2000 y''? 

Campbell creeks. The first named is the location of Crow Creek Indian Agency and 
Fort Thompson. — Ed. 



2o'{' of September, Thursday 1S04 — 

a fair morning wind from the S. E. detached i men to the 
I'.' Creek above the big bend with the horse to hunt and wait 
our arrival proceeded on passed the lower Island opposit 
which the Sand bars are very thick & the water Shoal. I 
walked on Shore with a view of examening this bend crossed 
at the Narost part which is a high irregular hills of about i8o 
or 190 feet, this place the gouge of the bend is i Mile & a 
quarter (from river to river or across,) from this high land 
which is only in the Gouge, the bend is a Butifull Plain thro 
which I walked, Saw numbers of Buffalow & Goats, I saw 
a Hare & believe he run into a hole in the Side of a hill, he 
run up this hill which is Small & has several holes on the Side 
& I could not see him after, I joined the boat in the evening, 
passed a Small Island on the L. S. in the N. W. extremity of 
the bend Called Solitary Island, and Camped late on a Sand 
Bar near the S. S. R. Fields Killed i Deer & 2 Goats one 
of them a female She Differs from the Mail as to Size being 
Smaller, with Small Horns, Streght with a Small Prong with- 
out any black about the Neck. None of those Goats has any 
Beard, they are all Keenly made [delicately formed. — Biddle], 
and is butitull. 

Course Distance and reff'! — 21'.' Sep' 

S. 70° W. 4^ Miles to the Upper part of a Ceder bottom on the L. S. 

passed Several Sand bars on both Sides. 
N. 50° W. 2i Miles to a tree on the S. S. passing over a Willow 

Island & a Creek on the L. S. (i) 
West 4A Miles to a point of Timber on the L. S. Passed Sand 

bars the river here is verry Shoal and about a Mile 

Wide. (2) Passed large hard Stone on the Shore 
J ji on each Side, a Mock Island on the S. S. 

2 1 '.' of September Friday 1804 — 

at half past one o'clock this morning the Sand bar on which 

we Camped began to under mind and give way which allarmed 

the Serjeant on Guard, the motion of the boat awakened me ; 

I got up & by the light of the moon observed that the Sand 



had given away both above and below our Camp & was falling 
in fast. I ordered all hands on as quick as possible & pushed 
off, we had pushed off but a few minits before the bank under 
which the Boat 6c perogus lay give way, which would Certainly 
have Sunk both Perogues, by the time we made the ops''. Shore 
our Camp fell in, we made a 2! Camp for the remainder of the 
night, ik at Daylight proceeded on to the Gouge of this Great 
bend and Brackfast, we Sent a man to Measure (step off) the 
Distance across the gouge, he made it 2,000 yd', The distance 
arround is 30 M'.' The hills extend thro: the Gouge and is about 
200 foot above the water, in the bend as also the opposit Sides 
both above and below the bend is a butifull inclined Plain, in 
which there is great numbers of Buffalow, Elk & Goats in 
view feeding & scipping on those Plains Grouse, Larks 8c 
the Prarie bird is Common in those Plains. 

We proceeded on passed a (i) Willow Island below the 
mouth of a Small river called Tylors R about 35 Y**.' wide 
which Corns in on the L. S. 6 Miles above the Gouge of the 
bend, at the Mouth ot this river the two hunters a head left 
a Deer & its Skin also the Skin of a White wolf We observe 
an emence number of Plover of Different kind collecting and 
takeing their flight Southerly, also Brants, which appear to 
move in the Same Direction. The Cat fish is Small and not 
so plenty as below. 

(2) The Shore on each Side is lined with hard rough GuUev 
Stone of different Sises, which has roled from the hills 6c out 
ot Small brooks, Ceder is Common here. This day is warm, 
the wind which is not hard blows from the S. E., we Camped 
at the lower point of the Mock Island on the S. S. this now 
Connected with the main land, it has the appearance of once 
being an Island detached from the main land Covered with tall 
Cotton Wood. We Saw Some Camps and tracks of the Seaux 
which appears to be old, three or four weeks ago, one french- 
man I fear has got an abscess on his they [thigh — Ed.], he 
Complains verrv much we are makeing every exertion to 
reliev him 

The Praries in this quarter Contains great q? of Prickley 

[ 159 ] 


Course Distance & refFerences — 22"'' 

S. 72° W. 5 Miles to a point on the S. S. Passing under a high 

bluff on the L. Side (i) 
West I Mile on the S. S. a bottom commencing on the L. S. 

at the end of this Course 
N. 38° W. 41/ Miles to a p' of timber on the S. S. opposit the Lower 

p" of Ceder Island passed two Islands on the L. S. 

one y^ a Mile & the other 3 Miles long called the 

3 Sisters ops') a large Creek coms in (2) 
N. 30° W. 3 Miles to a p' on S. S. passed Ceeder Island Situated 

nearest the S. S. a trading house (3) 
N. 22° E. lYi Miles to a timber opposit the Lower (L. S.) p'. of a 
^^ Small Island called Goat Island. (4) 

■2.1'"! of September Satturday 1804 — 

a thick fog this morning detained us untill 7 oClock passed 
a butifuil inclined Prarie on both Sides in which we See great 
numbers of Buffalow feeding, (i) took the Meridean altitude 
of the Suns Upper Limb 92°. 50' 00". [with] the Sextent the 
Lat? produced from this Obsevation is 44" 11' 1,1," ^ ,0 North. 

(2) passed a Small Island on the L. S. imediately above 
passed a Island Situated nearest the L. S. ab! 3 Miles long, 
behind this Is'^ on the L. S. a Creek Comes in about 15 yards 
wide, this Creek and Island are Called the 3 Sisters, a buti- 
fuil Plain on both Sides of the river. 

(3) passed a Island Situated nearest the S. S. imediately 
above the last Called Ceder Island this Island is about \\ 
miles long & nearly as wide Covered with Ceder, on the 
South Side of this Island Mr. Louiselle a trader from S! Louis 
built a fort of Ceder' & a good house to trade with the Seaux 
& Wintered last winter; about this fort I observed a number 
of Indian Camps in a Conceal form, they fed their horses on 
Cotton limbs as appears, here our hunters us joined haveing 

1 Gass (p. 58) thus describes this post : "The space picketed in is about 65 or 
70 feet square, with sentry-boxes in two of the angles. The pickets are 13^ feet 
above ground. In this square he built a house 45)^ by 32^^ feet, and divided it into 
four equal parts, one for goods, one to trade in, one to be used as a common hall, and 
the other for a family-house." — Ed. 

[ 160] 


killed 2 Deer & a Beaver, they Complain much of the Min- 
eral Substances in the barren hills over which they passed 
Distroying their mockessons. 

(4) we proceeded on and Camp^ late on the S. Side below a 
Small Island in the bend S. S. Called Goat Island, The large 
Stones which lay on the Sides of the banks in Several places 
lay some distance in the river, under the water and is dan- 
gerous. &c. 

I walked out this evening and killed a fine Deer the Mus- 
quiters is verry troublesom in the bottoms. 

Course Distance & refFcrencies. — 23'? Sep" 

N. 46° W. 3J Miles to the Mouth of a Creek in the bend to the 

S. S. passed an Is!'! on the S. S. (i) & Sands. 
S. 46° VV. I 3/^ Miles to a Coaps of Wood at a Spring in a bend to 

the L. S. 
Miles to the lower p! of a large Island (2) passed 2 

Willow Islands & Several Bars. 
Miles to a pi on the L. S. pass upper p. of Elk 

Island at 2.V Miles. Several Sands 
Miles to a p; on the S. S. below a Creek on the L. S. 

passed a Creek on the S. S. (3) 

23'^.' of September Sunday 1804 — 

Set out under a gentle breeze from the S. E. (i) passed a 
Small Island Situated in a bend to the L. S. Called Goat 
Island, a Short distance above the upper point a Creek of 12 
yards wide Corns in on the S. S. we observed a great Smoke 
to the S. W. I walked on Shore & observed Buffalow in great 
Herds at a distance 

(2) passed two Small Willow Islands with large Sand bars 
makeing out from them, passed (2) Elk Island about 2s 
Miles long & 5-:^ Mile Wide Situated near the L. S. Covered 
with Cotton Wood the read Currents Called by the french 
Gres de BeufF.' & grapes &c. &c. 

' [Memoranda by Clark on the inside of front cover and fly-leaf of Codex C :] 
The Mandans call a red berry common to the upper part of the Missouri assay. 
The red Berry is called by the Rees Nar-nis the engages call the same Berry Grease 
tie Buff — grows in great abundance & makes a Delightfull Tart. 
VOL. I.- I I [ ,61 ] 












the river is nearly Streight for a great distance wide and 
Shoal (4) passed a Creek on the S. S. 16 yards wide we Call 
Reuben Creek,' as R. Fields found it. Camped on the S. S. 
below the mouth of a Creek on the L. S. three Souex boys 
Came to us Swam the river and inform'' that the Band of 
Seauex called the Tetongues {Tetons) of 80 Lodges were Camped 
at the next Creek above, & 60 Lodges more a Short distance 
above, we gave those boys two Carrots of Tobacco to Carry 
to their Chiefs, with directions to tell them that we would Speek 
to them tomorrow 

Cap! Lewis walked on Shore this evening, R. F. Killed a 
Doe Goat, 

Course Distance & refturence — 24"; Septf 

N. 80 W. 3 Miles a p! on the S. S. 

West 2i Miles to the S. S. right of a IsH Situated on the 

L.S. (1) 

West 4 Miles to a Point on the S. S. passed the Island on 

the L. S. 

S. 85° W. 4 Miles to the Mouth of a River Called by Evens 2 Lit- 
tle Missourie I call it the Teton river as the 
To Teton Bands of the Soux reside on it (2) 

24':' September Monday 1S04 — 

Set out early a fair day the wind from the E. pass the 
mouth of Creek on the L. S. Called Creek on high Water, 
{High Water) passed (i) a large Island on the L. S. about 2 
Miles & ]4 long on which Colter had Camped & Killed 4 
Elk, the wind fair from the S. E. we prepared Some Clothes 
and a fiew Meadels for the Chiefs of the Teton's bands of 
Seoux which we expect to See to day at the next river, ob- 
serve a great Deel of Stone on the Sides of the hills on the 
S. S. we Saw one Hare, to day, prepared all things for 

1 Now East Medicine Knoll River (a translation of its Indian name) ; across the 
Missouri here was the site of old Fort George. — CouES (i. and C, i, p. 127). 

'^ Probably referring to a map cited by Coues (L. and C, i, p. xxiii), as made by 
one Evans in 1804, showing the Missouri River to the Mandans. See our atlas vol- 
ume, for maps which Lewis and Clark both took with them and made upon the 
Expedition ; one of the former was probably a copy of the Evans map. — Ed. 
[ 162 ] 


Action in Case of necessity, our Perogus went to the Island 
for the Meet, Soon after the man on Shore run up the bank 
and reported that the Indians had Stolen the horse We Soon 
after Met 5 Ind! and ankered out Som distance & Spoke to 
them informed them we were friends, &: Wished to Continue 
So but were not afraid of any Indians, Some of their young 
men had taken the horse Sent by their Great father for their 
Cheif and we would not Speek to them untill the horse was 
returned to us again. 

passed (2) a Island on the S. S. on which we Saw Several 
Elk, about \j4 Miles long Called Good humered [^/tumoure^'j 
Isl;" Came to about i}4 Miles above off the Mouth of a 
Small river about 70 yards wide Called by Mr. Evens the 
Little Mississou \_Missouri'] River, The Tribes of the Seauex 
Called the Teton, is Camped about 2 Miles up on the N. W. 
Side, and we Shall Call the River after that Nation, Telon ' 
This river is 70 yards wide at the mouth of Water, and has a 
considerable Current we anchored off the mouth 

the french Perogue Come up early In the day, the other did 
not Get up untill in the evening Soon after we had Come too. 
I went & Smoked with the Chiefs who came to See us here 
all well, we prepare to Speek with the Indians tomorrow at 
which time we are informed the Indians will be here, the 
French Man who had for Some time been Sick, began to 
blead which allarmed him -3 of our party Camped on board 
the remainder with the Guard on Shore. 

^ Also known as Bad River. Near its mouth was Fort Pierre (begun in 1831), 
named for Pierre Chouteau. — Ed. 

[ 163 ] 


Chapter IV 


Clark's Journal and Orders, September 25 — October 26, 1804 
Order by Lewis, October i 3 

[Clark ■^S"' Sept. — 

A FAIR Morning the Wind from the S. E. all well, 
raised a Flag Staff & made a orning or Shade on a 
Sand bar in the mouth of Teton River, for the pur- 
pose of Specking with the Indians under, the Boat Crew on 
board at 70 yards Distance from the bar The 5 Indians 
which we met last night Continued, about 1 1 OClock the 
i! & 2^ Chief Came we gave them Some of our Provisions to 
eat, they gave us great Quantitis of Meet Some ot which was 
Spoiled we feel much at a loss for the want of an interpeter 
the one we have can Speek but little. 

Met in Council at 12 oClock and after Smokeing, agree- 
able to the useal Custom, Cap. Lewis proceeded to Deliver a 
Speech which we [were — Ed.] oblige[d] to Curtail for want 
of a good interpeter all our party paraded, gave a Medal to 
the Grand Chief Call'! in Indian Un ton gar Sar bar in French 
Beeffe nure [Beuffle noir] Black Buffalow. Said to be a good 
Man, 2'"''^ Chief Torto hon gar or the Parti sin or Partizan 
bad the 3'.'^ is the Beffe De Medison [Beuffe de Medecine] 
his name is Tar ton gar Wa ker 1'^"^ Considerable Man, 
War zing go. i^^f^ Considerable Man Second Bear — Mato 
CO que par. 

Envited those Cheifs on board to Show them our boat and 
such Curiossities as was Strange to them, we gave them y^ a 
glass of whiskey which they appeared to be verry fond of, 
Sucked the bottle after it was out & Soon began to be trouble- 
som, one the 2? Cheif assumeing Drunkness, as a Cloake for 
his rascally intentions I went with those Cheifs {in one of the 
[ 164 ] 


Perogues with 5 men — 3 iS 2 Ind') (which left the boat with 
great reluctiance) to Shore with a view of reconsileing those 
men to us, as Soon as I landed the Perogue three of their 
young Men Seased the Cable of the Perogue, {in which we had 
pressents isfc) the Chiefs Sold! [each Chief has a soldier'] Huged 
the mast, and the li Chief was verry insolent both in words & 
justures {pretended Drunkenness &' staggered up against me) de- 
clareing I should not go on, Stateing he had not receved 
presents sufficent from us, his justures were of Such a per- 
sonal nature I telt My self Compeled to Draw my Sword {and 
Made a Signal to the boat to prepare for action) at this Motion 
Cap' Lewis ordered all under arms in the boat, those with 
me also Showed a Disposition to Defend themselves and me, 
the grand Chief then took, hold of the roap & ordered the 
young Warrers away, 1 felt My Self warm 6c Spoke in verry 
positive terms. 

Most of the Warriers appeared to have ther Bows strung 
and took out their arrows from the quiver, as I {being sur- 
rounded) was not permited {by thetn) to return, I Sent all the 
men except 2 Inp' [Interpreters] to the boat, the perogue 
Soon returned with about 1 2 of our determined men ready for 
any event, this movement caused a no: of the Indians to with- 
draw at a distance, (leaving their chiefs 6f soldiers alone with me). 
Their treatment to me was verry rough & I think justified 
roughness on my part, they all lift my Perogue, and Council*! 
with themselves the result I could not lern and nearly all 
went off after remaining in this Situation Some time I offered my 
hand to the i. & 2. Chiefs who retus'? to receve it. I turned off 
& went with my men on board the perogue, I had not pros'! 
more the [than] 10 paces before the iV Cheif 3';* & 2 Brave 
Men Waded in after me. I took them in & went on board ^ 

We proceeded on about 1 Mile & anchored out off a 
Willow Island placed a guard on Shore to protect the Cooks 
& a guard in the boat, fastened the Perogues to the boat, I 
call this Island bad humered Island as we were in a bad humer. 

' This paragraph is misplaced in the MS.; it is written on the next page after that 
containing the first part of this council with the Indians. We have placed it in 
proper position. — Ed. 



Course Distance & refFurences — 26'!' Sep' 1804 bad".'* Is? 

N. 28"" VV. 4;V Miles to a p? on the L. S. passing a Small Willow 
Island at lyi Miles & Several Sand bars the 
Water Shallow came too (i) 

26''f' of September IVednesday 1804. — 

Set out early proceeded on and Came to by the Wish of 
the Chiefs for to let their Squars [squaws] & boys see the 
Boat and Suffer them to treat us well great numbers of men 
womin & children on the banks viewing us, these people 
Shew great anxiety, they appear Spritely, Generally ill look- 
ing & not well made their legs \Js' arms] Small generally, [high 
cheek hones, prominent eyes'] they Grese & Black [paint] 
themselves [with coal] when they dress [the disting^ men] 
make use of a hawks feathers [Calumet feather adorned with 
porcupine quills ^ fastened to the top of the head & falls hack- 
wards] about their heads, the men [wear] a robe & each a 
polecats Skin, for to hold ther Bawe roley [Bois roule] for 
Smoking,' fond of Dress & Show badly armed with fusees, 
&c. The Squaws are Chearfull fine look'g womin not hand- 
som, High Cheeks Dressed in Skins a Peticoat and roab 
which foldes back over ther Sholder, with long wool, do all 
their laborious work & I may Say perfect Slaves to the Men, 
as all Squars of Nations much at War, or where the Womin 
are more noumerous than the men." after Comeing too Cap! 
Lewis & 5 men went on Shore with the Cheifs, who appeared 
disposed to make up & be friendly, after Captain Lewis had 
been on Shore about 3 hours I became uneasy for fear of 
Deception & Sent a Serjeant to See him and know his treat- 
ment which he reported was friendly, & they were prepareing 
for a Dance this evening The[y] made frequent Selicitiations 
for us to remain one night only and let them Show their good 

1 Bois roule, literally "rolled wood," — better known by its Algonkin name, 
Kinikinik (Kinnikinnic), — a mixture of tobacco with scrapings or shavings from 
various woods, especially that of sumac, red osier, and other dogwoods, and bear- 
berry. — Ed. 

^ Biddle describes in much greater detail (i, pp. 84-90) the costumes and mode 
of life of these Teton Indians. — Ed. 


btiAhbish ipAz(ciEH[j/j^^^.//,„«^„^,«i. 

mAh'iDis :ei fAmgihiiij ^.^p«n^au,/„„ y„r/...„ / 


disposition towards us, we deturmined to remain, after the 
return of Cap! Lewis, I went on Shore on landing I was 
receved on a eiegent painted B.[uifalo] Robe &c taken to the 
Village by 6 Men & was not permited to touch the ground 
untill 1 was put down in the grand Concill house on a White 
dressed Robe. I saw Several Maha Prissners and Spoke to 
the Chiefs [telling them that — Ed.] it was necessary to give 
those prisoners up & become good friends with the Mahas if 
they wished to follow the advice of their great father I was 
in Several Lodges neetly formed as before mentioned as to 
the Baureily {Bois brule — Yankton) Tribe. I was met [on 
landing from the boat) by about lo Well Dressf young Men 
who took me up in a roabe Highly adecrated and Set me 
Down by the Side ot their Chief on a Dressed Robe in a large 
Council House, this house formed a -y^ Circle of Skins Well 
Dressed and Sown together under this Shelter about 70 Men 
Set forming a Circle in front of the Cheifs a plac of 6 feet 
Diameter was Clear and the pipe of peace raised on [forked) 
Sticks [about 6 or S inches from the ground) under which there 
was swans down scattered, on each Side of this Circle two 
Pipes, the [two) flags of Spain 2 & the Flag we gave them 
in front of the Grand Chief a large fire was near in which 
provisions were Cooking, in the Center about 400'^' of excel- 
lent Buffalo Beef as a present for us. Soon after they Set me 
Down, the Men went for Cap! Lewis brought him in the 
same way and placed him also by the Chief in a fiew minits 
an old man rose & Spoke aproveing what we had done & 
informing us of their situation requesting us to take pity on 
them & which was answered. The great Chief then rose with 
great State [speaking — Ed.] to the Same purpote as far as 
we Could learn & then with Great Solemnity took up the pipe 
ot Peace & after pointing it to the heavins the 4 quarters of 
the Globe & the earth, he made Some disertation, [then made a 
Speech) lit it and presented the Stem to us to Smoke, when 
the Principal Chief Spoke with the Pipe of Peace he took in 
one hand some of the most Delicate parts of the Dog which 
was prepared for the fiest & made a Sacrefise to the flag, [this 
sentence misplaced in MS., but properly placed by us. — Ed.] 
[ 167 ] 


after A Smoke had taken place, & a Short Harange to his 
people, we were requested to take the Meal (& then put before 
us the dog which they had been cooking, & Pemitigon * & ground 
potatoe in Several platters Pern", is Buff'' meat dried or jerked 
pounded &' mixed with grease raw. Dog Sioux think great dish 
used on festivals eat little of dog — pern". &' pot' good.) We 
Smoked for an hour (till) Dark & all was Cleared away a 
large fire made in the Center, about 10 Musitions playing on 
tambereens {made of hoops is" Skin stretched), long Sticks with 
Deer & Goats Hoofs tied so as to make a gingling noise, and 
many others of a Similer Kind, those Men began to Sing, & 
Beet on the Tamboren, the Women Came foward highly 
Deckerated in their Way, with the Scalps and Tropies of War 
of their fathers Husbands Brothers or near Connections & 
proceeded to Dance the War Dance {tVomen only dance jump 
up y down — five or six young men selected accompanied with 
songs the tamborin making the song extempore words i^ music 
every now & then one of the com' come out & repeat some exploit 
in a sort of song — this taken up by the young men and the women 
dance to it) which they done with great Chearfullness untill 
about 12 oClock when we informed the Cheifs that they were 
[must be] fatigued [amusing us^ &c. they then retired & we 
Accomp^ by 4 Cheifs returned to our boat, they Stayed with 
us all night. Those people have Some brave men which they 
make use of as Soldiers those men attend to the police of the 
Village Correct all errors I saw one of them to day whip 
2 Squars, who appeared to have fallen out, when he ap- 
proach"! all about appeared to flee with great turrow [terror], 
at night they keep two 3, 4 5 men at different Distances walk- 
ing around Camp Singing the accurrunces of the night 

All the Men on board 100 paces from Shore Wind froni 
the S. E. moderate one man verry sick on board with a 
Dangerass Abscess on his Hip. All in Spirits this evening. 

In this Tribe 1 saw 25 Squars and Boys taken 13 days ago 
in a battle with the Mahars in this battle they Destroy'' 40 
Lodges, Killed 75 Men, & som boys & Children, & took 48 

1 Better known as "pemmican." — Ed. 
[ 168 


Prisoners Womin & boys which they promis both Cap! Lewis 
and my self Shall be Delivered up to Mr. Durion at the Bous 
rulie {Bois brule) Tribe,' those are a retched and Dejected 
looking people the Squars appear low & Corse but this is an 
unfavourable time to judge of them 

We gave our Mahar intep" some fiew articles to give those 
Squars in his name Such as Alls, needles &c. &c. 

I saw & eat Pemitigon the Dog, Grou!" potatoe made into a 
Kind of homney, which I thought but little inferior. 1 also 
Saw a Spoon Made of a horn of an Animell of the Sheep 
Kind (Mt^ mountain ram of Argalia'' ) the Spoon will hold 2 

zy": of Sept. Thursday 1804 — 

I rose early after a bad nights Sleep found the Chief [s] 
all up, and the bank as useal lined with Spectators we gave 
the 2 great Cheifs a Blanket a peace, or rether they took off 
agreeable to their Custom the one they lay on and each one 
Peck of corn, after Brackfast Cap' Lewis &c the Cheifs went 
on Shore, as a verry large part of their nation was comeing in, 
the Disposition of whome I did not know one of us being 
sufficent on Shore, I wrote a letter to Mr. P. Durion & pre- 
pared a meadel & Some Coins"' {Certificates) & Sent to Cap 
Lewis at 2 oClock Cap" Lewis Returned with 4 Chiefs & a 
Brave Man {Consid' Man) named fVar cha fa or on his Guard 
when the friends of those people \the Scioux\ die they run 
arrows through their flesh above and below their elbows as a 
testimony of their Greaf. 

atter Staying about half an hour, I went with them on Shore, 
Those men left the boat with reluctience, I went first to the 
2;? Cheifs Lodge, where a croud came around after Speeking 
on various Subjects I went to a princpal mans lodge from 
them to the grand Chiefs lodge, after a fiew minits he invited 
me to a Lodge within the Circle in which I Stayed with all 
their principal Men untill the Dance began, which was Similer 
to the one of last night performed bv their women with poles 

> One of the bands of the Teton Sioux. — Ed. 

■^ The Rocky Mountain sheep or argal {0-uis montana.) — Ed. 



{in their hands) on which Scalps of their enemies were hung, 
Some with the Guns Spears & War empiiments of {taken by) 
their husbands [cffT.] in their hands. 

Capl Lewis Came on Shore and we Continued untill we were 
Sleepv & returned to our boat, the 2"^ Chief & one principal 
Man accompanied us, Those two Indians accompanied me 
on board in the Small Perogue ; Cap! Lewis with a guard Still 
on Shore the man who Steered not being much acustomed to 
Steer, passed the bow of the boat & the peroge Came broad 
Side against the Cable & broke it which obliged me to order 
in a loud voice all hands up & at their ores, my preemptry 
order to the men and the bustle of their getting to their ores 
allarm? the Cheifs, together with the appearance of the Men 
on Shore, as the boat turn? The Cheif hoUowaed & allarmed 
the Camp or Town informing them that the Mahars was about 
attacking us {them). In about 10 minits the bank was lined 
with men armed the i"! Cheif at their head, about 200 men 
appeared and after about ^A, hour returned all but about 60 
men who continued on the bank all night, the Cheifs Cont? 
all night with us. This allarm I as well as Cap! Lewis Con- 
sidered as the Signal of their intentions (which was to Stop our 
proceeding on our journey and if Possible rob us) we were 
on our Guard all night, the misfortune of the loss of our 
Anchor obliged us to Lay under a falling bank much expos!" 
to the accomplishment of their hostile intentions. P. C. our 
Bowman who c!" Speek Mahar informed us in the night that 
the Maha Prisoners informed him we were to be Stoped. we 
Shew as little Sighns of a Knowledge of their intentions as 
possible all prepared on board for any thing which might 
hapen, we kept a Strong guard all night in the boat, no Sleep 

28''!' of September 1804 Friday — 

Made many attemps in different wavs to find our anchor, 
but Could not, the Sand had Covered it, from the Misfortune 
of last night our boat was laying at Shore in a verry unfavour- 
able Situation, after finding that the anchor Could not be 
found we deturmined to proceed on, with great difficuelty got 
[ 170] 


the Chiefs out of our boat, and when we was about Setting out 
the Class Called the Soldiers took possession of the Cable 
the i" Cheif which was Still on board, & intended to go a 
Short distance up with us. I told him the men of his nation 
Set on the Cable, he went out & told Cap! Lewis who was 
at the bow the men Who Set on the roap was Soldiers, and 
wanted Tobacco Cap! L. [_saiiQ would not agree to be forced 
into any thing, the 2"^ Chief Demanded a flag & Tobacco 
which we refus!" to Give Stateing proper reasons to them for 
it after much Dificuelty — which had nearly reduced us to 
necessity to hostilites I threw a Carrot of Tobacco to is'. 
Chief took the port fire from the gunner. Spoke so as to 
touch his pride The Chief gave the Tobacco to his Soldiers 
& he jurked the rope from them and handed it to the bowsman 
we then Set out under a Breeze from the S. E. about 2 miles 
up we observed the 3'^ Chief on Shore beckining to us we 
took him on board he informed us the roap was held by the 
order of the 2^ Chief who was a Double Spoken man, Soon 
after we Saw a man Comeing full Speed, thro: the plains left 
his horse & proceeded across a Sand bar near the Shore we 
took him on board & observed that he was the Son of the 
Chief we had on board we Sent by him a talk to the nation 
Stateint [stating] the cause of our hoisting the red flag und' the 
white, it they were for peace Stay at home & do as we 
had Directed them, if the [y] were for war or were Deturmined 
to stop us we were ready to defend our Selves, we halted one 
houre & ^ on the S. S. & made a Substitute of Stones for 
a ancher, refreshed our men and proceeded on about 2 Miles 
higher up & Came to a verry Small Sand bar in the middle 
ot the river & Stayed all night, I am verry unwell for want 
of Sleep Deturmined to Sleep to night if possible, the Men 
Cooked & we rested well. 

Course Distance & refP 

N. 33 W. 3 Miles to the extmt'' of a Sand bar on the L. S. passed 

a Willow IsH on the L. S. at the Corns'! of the Course. 

S. 80? W. 3 Ml' to an object on the bank in a bend to the S. S. at 

"6~ Some woods, ops'? the High land on the L. S. Camped. 



29'* of Sep'": Satturday 1804. — 

Set out early Some bad Sand bars, proceeded on at 9 
oClock we observed the 2^ Chief & 2 principal Men one Man 
& a Squar on Shore, they wished to go up with us as far as 
the other part of their band, which they Said was on the river 
a head not far Distant we refused Stateing verry Sufficint 
reasons and was Plain with them on the Subject, they were 
not pleased observed that they would walk on Shore to the Place 
we intended to Camp to night, we observed it was not our wish 
that they Should for if they did we Could not take them or 
any other Tetons on board except the one we had now with us 
who might go on Shore whenever he pleased, they proceeded 
on, the Chief on board ask** for a twist ^ of Tobacco for those 
men we gave him 4^ of a twist, and Sent one by them for 
that part of their band which we did not See, & Continued on 
Saw great numbers of Elk at the mouth of a Small Creek 
Called No timber C — as no timber appeared to be on it. 
above the mouth of this Creek {a Ricara band of) the Panics 
had a Village 5 years ago, {no remains but the mound which sur- 
rojinded the town) The i\ Cheif came on the Sand bar & 
requested we would put him across the river, I Sent a Perogue 
& Crossed him & one Man to the S. S. and proceeded on & 
Came too on a Sand bar on about ^ Mile from the main Shore 
& put on it 2 Sentinals Continud all night at anchor (we 
Substitute large Stones for anchors in place of the one we lost 
all in high Spirits &c. 

Course Distance & refFerence — 29 Sept' 

S. 60? W. 2 M'^ to a p' on S. S. Passing Several Sand bars. 

N. 80° W. i^ to a tree on L. S. 

N. 16° E. 2 J to a p! on S. S. 

N. 8? W. 1^^ to the Mouth of a Creek on the L. S. Where the Pa- 

nias had a Town. 

N. 45"? E. 2 M'^ to a p' on the L. Side 

N. 25° E. I J- Miles to the Lower p! of a Willow Island ^ in the 
Ti middle of the river. 

1 The same as the " carrot " mentioned elsewhere. — Ed. 

2 Now Okobojou. — Ed. 

[ 172 ] 


Course Distance & refferrence — 30"" Sep' 

N. 30° W. 3 Miles to a tree at the upper p! of some woods on the 

S. S. 
N. 80° W. I y^ Miles on the S. S. 
N. 64? W. 3 Mi» to a Bush on L. S. 
N. 46? W. I y, Mi» on the L. S. 
N. 10. W. 3 M':* to a p! on the S. S. passed Several Sand bars & 

the Camp of a Band of Tetons (i) 
Nonh 2 Miles to a tree on the S. S. 

N. 24° VV. 4 M'? to a p" on the L. S. 

N. 50° W. 2^ M'r to the Lower p" of Pania Island ' situated in the 
201/C ni'tl' of the river (2) 

30'f' of Sep'. Sunday 1804 — 

Set out this morning early had not proceeded on far before 
we discovered an Ind" running after us, he came up with us 
at 7 oClock & requested to come on bord and go up to the 
Recorees " we refused to take any of that band on board if 
he chose to proceed on Shore it was verry Well Soon after 
I descovered on the hills at a great distance great numbers of 
Indians which appeared to be makeing to the river above us, 
we proceeded on under a Double reafed Sail, & some rain at 
9 oClock observed a large band of Indians the Same which I 
had before seen on the hills incamping on the bank the L. S. 
we Came too on a Sand bar Brackfast & proceeded on & Cast 
the anchor opposit their Lodge at about 100 vards distant, and 
informed the Indians which we found to be a part of the Band 
we had before Seen, that [we) took them by the hand and Sent 
to each Chief a Carrot of tobacco, as we had been treated 
badly by some of the band below, after Staying 2 days for 
them, we Could not delay any time, & referred them to Mr. 
Durion for a full account of us and to here our Talk Sent by 
him to the Tetons, those were verry selicitious for us to land 
and eate with them, that they were friendly &c. &c. we ap- 

* Now Cheyenne. — Ed. 

* Otherwise called Ricaree, Ree, or, more correctly, Arikara ; Lewis says 
("Statistical View," p. 23) that they are "the remains of ten large tribes of Panias 
(Pawnees) ;" and estimates that they then (1806) numbered 500 warriors, or 2,000 
souls. Cf. Biddle's account of their migrations (i, 104). — Ed. 



poligised & proceeded on/ Sent the Peroge to Shore above 
with the Tobacco & Deliv:" it to a Sold; of the Chief with us 
Several of them ran up the river, the Chfi on board threw 
them out a Small twist of Tobacco & told them to go back & 
open ther ears, they rec[e]ved the Tobacco & returned to 
their lodges, we saw great numbers of white Guls This day 
is Cloudy & rainey. refresh the men with a glass of whisky 
after Brackfast. 

We Saw about 6 Miles above 2 Indians who Came to the 
bank and looked at us about ^ an hour & went over the hills 
to the S. W. we proceeded on under a verry Stiff Breeze 
from the S. E., the Stern of the boat got fast on a log and 
the boat turned & was verry near filling before we got her 
righted, the waves being verry high, The Chief on board was 
So fritened at the Motion of the boat which in its rocking 
Caused Several loose articles to fall on the Deck from the 
lockers, he ran off and hid himself, we landed, he got his gun 
and informed us he wished to return, that all things were 
cleare for us to go on, we would not see any more Tetons &c. 
we repeated to him what had been Said before, and advised 
him to keep his men away, gave him a blanket a Knife & some 
Tobacco, Smok*! a pipe & he Set out. We also Set Sale and 
Came to at a Sand bar, & Camped, a verry Cold evening, all 
on guard. 

Course Distance & reffurence — - 1" October 
N. 80° W. 3 M'.' to the upper p! of a large Island in the River, (i)^ 
N. 70° W. 2 M'^ to the Mouth of Chien or Dosj River ^ on the 

L. S. (2)2 
N. 16° W. 2 J Miles to a p'. on the S. S. Passed verry bad Sand 

N. 50° E. 4 Mile to Some Willows on the L. S. passed 2 Creeks 

on the L. S. the upper Small. 
S. 53 E. 4.1 M'.^ to a p" on the S. S. passing a Bluff on the L. S. 


' Passed 60 Lodges of Tetons, the remainder of the band. — Cl.^rk (memoran- 
dum on p. 225 of Codex C). 

" In MS., these figures are misplaced. — Ed. 

' Erroneously thus named, from the resemblance of the French word cJiien 
(dog) to the tribal name Cheyenne. — Ed. 



Sand hars are So noumerous, that it is impossible to describe 

them, &c think it unnecessary to mention them. 

I'! of October MonJay 1 804 — 

The wind blew hard all last night from the S. E. verry cold 
Set out early the wind Still hard, passed a large Island in the 
middle of the river (i) ops^ the lower point of this Island the 
Rccrerees formerly lived in a large Town on the L. S. (remains 
only a mound circular walls j or 4 feet high) above the head of 
the Island about 2 miles we passed the (2) River Chien (or 
Dog River) {Chayenne) L. S. this river Comes in from the 
S. W. and is about 400 yards wide, the Current appears gentle, 
throwing out but little Sands, and appears to throw out but 
little water the heads of this River is not known (/« the second 
range of the Cote Noir its course generally about East. So 
called from the Chayenne Indians who live on the heads of it) 
a part oi the nation of Dog Indians live some distance up this 
river, the precise distance I cant learn, above the mouth of 
this river the Sand bars are thick and the water Shoal the 
river Still verry wide and falling a little we are obliged to 
haul the boat over a Sand bar, after makeing Several attempts 
to pass, the wind So hard we Came too & Stayed 3 hours 
after it Slackened a little we proceeded on round a bend, the 
wind in the after part of the Day a head. (2) passed a Creek 
on the L. S. which we Call the Sentinal, this part of the river 
has but little timber, the hills not so high, the Sand bars more 
noumerous, & river more than one mile Wide including the 
Sand bars. (2) pass a Small Creek above the latter which we 
Call lookout C. Continued on with the wind imediately a head, 
and Came too on a large Sand bar in the middle of the river, 
we Saw a man opposit to our Camp on the L. S. which we 
discov^ to be a Frenchman, a little of [f] {from Shore among) 
the Willows we observed a house, we Call to them to come 
over, a boy came in a canoe & informed that 2 frenchmen 
were at the house with good[s] to trade with the Seauex which 
he expected down from the rickerrees everry day, Sever'l 
large parties of Seauex Set out from the rees for this place to 
trade with those men. 

[ 175 ] 


This M: Jon Vallie^ informs us that he wintered last winter 
300 Leagues up the Chien River under the Black mountains, 
he informs that this river is verry rapid and dificuelt even for 
Perogues [Canoos'] to assend and when riseing the Swels is 
verrv high, one hundred Leagues up it forks one fork 
Conies from the S. the other at 40 Leagues above the forks 
enters the black Mountain. The Countrey from the Missourie 
to the black mountains is much like the Countrey on the 
Missourie, less timber. & a great perpotion of Ceder. 

The black mountains he Says is verry high, and Some parts 
of it has Snow on it in the Summer great quantities of Pine 
Grow on the Mountains, a great Noise is heard frequently 
on those Mountains". No beever on Dog river, on the 
Mountains great numbers of goat, and a kind of anamale 
with large circular horns, this animale is nearly the Size of an 
[_Small^ Elk. \_Argalea] White bears is also plenty The 
Chien [Chayenne) Ind! are about 300 Lodges" they inhabit this 
river principally, and Steel horses from the Spanish Settle- 
ments, to the S W. this excurtion they make in one month 
the bottoms & Sides of R Chien is corse gravel. This french- 
man gives an account of a white booted turkey an inhabitent 
of the Cout Noir {Prairie Cock) 

I'.' of October Monday 1804 at the Mouth of Rit'er Chien or Dog R'^ — 

We proceeded now from the mouth of this river 1 1 miles 
and camped on a Sand bar in the river opposit to a Tradeing 
house verry windy & cold. // miles alcove — Ckien R^ — 

' Evidently meant for Jean Valle — probably a relative of the Francois Valle who 
was commandant at Ste. Genevieve at the time when that post was delivered by the 
Spaniards to the United States authorities. — Ed. 

- The Cheyenne tribe is (like the Arapaho) of Algonquian stock. Powell thinks 
that these savages, having early separated from their kindred at the North, forced their 
way through hostile tribes, across the Missouri, into the Black Hills country — thus 
locating between the Siouan and the Shoshonean tribes. See Mooney's account of 
this tribe, in U. S. Bur. Ethnol. Rep., 1892-93, pp. 1023-1027. — Ed. 

s This paragraph is found on p. 2 of Codex C. — Ed. 


S. 80° E. 


N. 62. E. 


N. 15° E. 



Course Distance and refferrens. — 2".'* of Oct' 

S. 70? E. 2} Miles to a wood on the L. Side pass a large Sand bar 
in the middle & a Willow Is'' close under the L. S. 
M':" on the L. S. 

Miles on the L. S. a Willow bottom opposit on the S. S. 
Miles to the L. Side of an Island Situated near the S. S. 
& 1 Ml above the lower point of the S'! Island ( i ) 
N. 28? E. 2 Miles to the p' of a Sand bar Makeing from the head 
Y2 of the Island & Camped (2) 

1"! of October Tuesday 180+ — 

a Violent wind all night from the S. E. Slackened a little and 
we proceeded on M". Jon Vallie Came on board and proceeded 
on 2 Miles with us, a verry Cold morning Some black. Clouds 
flying took a Meridian altitude & made the Lattitude 44 
ig' j6" . North this was taken at the upper part of the gouge 
of the Lookout bend, the Sentinal heard a Shot over the 
hills to the L. S. dureing the time we were Dineing on a large 
Sand bar. the after part of this day is pleasent, at 2 oClock 
opposit a Wood on the L. S. we observed Some Indians on a 
hill on the S. S. one Came down to the river opposit to us 
and fired off his gun, & becken'! to us to Come too, we 
payed no attention to him he followed on Some distance, 
we Spoke a few words to him, he wished us to go a Shore 
and to his Camp which was over the hill and Consisted of 20 
Lodges,' we excused our Selves advised him to go and here 
our talk of Mf Durion, he enquired for traders we informed 
him one was in the next bend below. & parted, he returned, 
& we proceeded on (i) passed a large Island, on the S. S. 
here we expected the Tetons would attempt to Stop us and 
under that idear we prepared our selves for action which we 
expected every moment, ops'! this Island on the L. S. a Small 
Creek Coms in, This Island we call Is'^ of Caution ' we took 
in Some wood on a favourable Situation where we Could 

1 Gass says (p. 68) : " He said he belonged to the Jonkta or Babarole band," 
probably referring to the Yankton. — Ed. 

2 Now Plum Island. — Ed. 

vol.. I. — 12 



defend our Men on Shore & (2) Camped on a Sand bar ^ a 
Mile from the main Shore the Wind changed to the N. W. 
& rose verry high and Cold which Continud. The Current 
of the Missourie is less rapid & Contains much less sediment, 
of the Same Colour. 

2';f of October Tuesday 1 804 i — 

Proceeded on as mentioned in Journal No. i twelve miles 
camped above a large Island on a Sand bar, verry windy and 
cold the after part of this day, the mid day verry warm. The 
Lattitude as taken to day is 44" 19' 36" observe great caution 
this day expecting the Seaux intentions some what hostile 
towards our progression, The river not so rapid as below the 
Chien, its width nearly the same. 12 miles 

3'd of October Wednesday 1804. — Wind blew hard all night from 
the N. W. Some rain and verry Cold we Set out at 7 oClock & 
proceeded on 

N. 50° E. 21/ M's to a p' of Wood on the L. S. 

N. 54 E 2 Miles to a tree in a bend S. S. 

North 2 Miles to a p' High Land on L. S. wind hard a head 

Came too & Dined. 
N. 22° W. 4^ Miles to the head of good hope Island. 2 Indians 

Came to the mouth of a Creek on the S. S. 
71 Shields 

Y' of October Wednesday 1804- — 

The N. W. wind blew verry hard all night with Some rain 
a cold morning, we Set out at 7 oClock and proceeded on 
at 12 oclock landed on a Bare L. S. examined the Perogus 
& focatle {forecastle) of the {boat) to See if the mice had done 
any damage. Several bags cut by them corn scattered &c 
Some of our clothes also spoiled by them, and papers &c, &c. 
at I oClock an Indian came to the bank S. S. with a turkey 
on his back, four others Soon joined him, we attempted 
several chanels and could not find water to assend, landed on 

1 This entry is found on p. 2 of Codex C. — Ed. 

' At this point the journal is continued in Codex C, the last entry therein being 
dated April 7, 1805. — Ed. 


N. 50° E 


N. 54° E 




N. 22° W. 

I •-< 


a Sand bar 6c concluded to Stay all night, & Send out and 
hunt a chanell, some rain this afternoon. Saw Brant and 
white gulls flying Southerly in large flocks. 

Course Uistance & refFurcnccs. 3 rd 

2jX miles to a point of wood on the Larboard Side. 

miles to a tree in the bend to the Larboard Side. 

miles to a point of high Land on the Larboard Side. 

miles on the L. Side under a Bluff. 
8 miles 

4'm <>f October Thunday i 804 — 

the wind blew all night from the NW. some rain, we were 
obliged to Drop down 3 miles to get the Chanel Suf! deep to 
pass up, Several Indians on the Shore viewing of us called 
to us to land one ot them gave 3 yels & Sciped \jkipped'\ a 
ball before us, we payed no attention to him, proceeded on 
and came too on the L. S. to brackt't one of those Indians 
swam across to us beged for Powder, we gave him a piece of 
Tobacco & Set him over on a Sand bar, and set out,, the 
wind hard ahead (i) passed a Island in the middle of the -iver 
about 3 miles in length, we call Good hope Island, (2) at 4 
miles passed a (2) Creek on the L. S. about 12 yards wide 
Capt. Lewis and 3 men walked on Shore ik crossed over to an 
(3) Island situated on the S. S. of the current & near the center 
of the river this Isl'! is about \]/2 miles long ik nearly ^ as 
wide, in the Center of this Island was an old village of the 
rickeries called La fioo catt it was circular and walled contain- 
ing 17 lodges and it appears to have been deserted about five 
years, the Island contains but little timber, we camped on 
the Sand bar makeing from this Island, the day verry cool. 

Course Distance iS: reffurenees, 4'!" Oct- 

N. 18° W. 8 i/j miles to a pf on the S. S. passed an Island Goodhope 

jn the middle of the river (i) 
N. 12? E. 1^ miles on the S. S. passed a creek on the L. S. (2) 
N. 45? E. 2 miles on the S. p' passed an Island on which there 
72 was a Village (3) of Ricreries in the year 1797. 

La hoo-catt 



5','' of October, Friday 1804 — 

Frost this morning, we Set out early and proceeded on 
(i) passed a Small Creek on the L. S. at 7 oClock heard 
some vels proceeded on Saw 3 Indians of the Teton band, 
they called to us to come on Shore, beged Some Tobacco, we 
answ"! them as useal and proceeded on, passed (2) a Creek on 
the S. S. at 3 m'f above the mouth we saw one white Brant 
in a gang of about 30, the others all as dark as usial, a Dis- 
cription of this kind of Gees or Brant shall be given here after 
Saw a gang of Goats Swiming across the river out of which we 
killed four they were not fatt. in the evening passed a Small 
(3) Island Situated close to the L. Side, at the head of this 
Is*! a large Creek coms in on the L. S. saw white Brants, we 
call this Creek white Brant Creek. I walked on the Is'! found 
it Covered with wild Rye, I Shot a Buck, Saw a large gang 
of Goat on the hills opposit, one Buck killed, also a Prarie 
wolt this evening. The high Land not so high as below, river 
about the Same width, the Sand bars as noumerous, the earth 
Black and many of the Bluffs have the Appearance of being 
on tire. We came too and camped on a mud bar makeing 
from the S. S. the evening is calm and pleasent, refreshed 
the men with a glass of whiskey. 

Course Distance & reffurences. — 5"!' October 

N. 63° E. I y, under Some high land on the S. S. 

East. 3 miles to a point of Timber on the L. S. passed a 

creek on the L. S. (i) high land on the S. S. 
N. 80 E ly m'= to a Tree in the bend to the S. S. 
N. 36° W. 2 m'.^ to a p" of high land on the L. S. passd a creek on 

the S. S. (2) 
N. 50° W. 3 miles to a Point to the S. S. 
N. 17? W. 3 m'.= to a tree on the S. S. pass*" a Small Island close 

on the L. S. above the S'! Island a Creek comes 

in on the L. S. 
N. 16? E. 6 m'f to a p! on the L. Side opposit a Willow Island 
"^0 Situated near the S. Shore 

[ 180 ] 


a'!; October Satturday 1804. — 

a cool morning wind from the North Set out early passed 
a willow Island (i) Situated near the S. Shore at the upper 
point of Som timber on the S. S. many large round Stones 
near the middle of the river, those Stones appear to have been 
washed from the hills (2) passed a Village of about 80 neet 
Lodges covered with earth and picketed around, those loges 
are Spicious [spacious — Ed.] of an Octagon form as close 
together as they can possibly be placed and appear to have 
been inhabited last Spring, from the Canoes of Skins Mats 
buckits &c. found in the lodges, we are of oppinion they were 
the recrereis We found Squashes of 3 Different Kinds grow- 
ing in the Village, one of our men Killed an Elk close by 
this Village, I saw 2 wolves in persute of another which 
appeared to be wounded and nearly tired, we proceeded on 
found the river Shole we made Several attempts to find the 
main Channel between the Sand bars, and was obliged at length 
to Drag the boat over to Save a league which we must return 
to get into the deepest Channel, we have been obg"" to hunt a 
Chan' for Some time past the river being devided in many 
places in a great number of Chanels, Saw Gees, Swan, Brants, 
& Ducks of Different Kinds on the Sand bars to day. Cap! 
Lewis walked on Shore Saw great numbers of Prarie hens, I 
observe but fiew Gulls or Pleover in this part of the river, 
The Corvos or Magpye is verry Common in this quarter. 
We camped on a large Sand bar off the mouth of Beaver or 
Otter Creek, on the S.S. this creek is about 22 vards wide 
at the mouth and contains a greater perpotion of Water than 
common tor creeks of its Sise ' 

Course Distance and Reffurences — b'*" Octi 
N. 4° E 8 miles to a point of woodland on the L. S. passed a 

willow Is'J S. S. 
N. 8? W. I M' on the L. Side 
N. 32 W. 3 M'* to a point on the S. S. passed an old Village of 

the Rickorrees at the Corns! of this Course (2) 
N. 40° VV. 2i Miles the Mouth of Beaver (otter Creek) on the S. S. 
141,' a large Sand bar opposit 

1 Now Swan Creek, in Walworth Co. — CouES (/.. and C, i, p. 155). 
[181 ] 


7 ''' of October Sunday 1804 — 

a Cloudy morning, Some little rain frost last night, we 
Set out early proceeded on 2 miles to the mouth of a (i) 
River on the L.S. and brackfast this river when full is 90 
yards wide the water is at this time Confined within 20 yards, 
the Current appears jentle, this river throws out but little 
Sand, at the mouth of this river we Saw the Tracks of white 
bear which was verrv large, I walked up this river a mile, 
below the (2) mouth of this river is the remains of a Rickorree 
Village or Wintering Camp fortified in a circular form of about 
60 Lodges, built in the Same form of those passed yesterday 
This Camp appears to have been inhabited last winter, many 
of their willow and Straw mats. Baskets & BufFalow Skin 
Canoes remain intire within the Camp, the Ricaries call this 
river Sur-war-kar-na or Park.' [i? .?] 

Course Distance & RefFurences — 7''' October 

Miles to the Mouth of a River Caled Sur war car na 
in a bend to the L. S. (i) a village at Mo: (2) 

M'.' to a Clump of bushes in a bend to the S. S. pass- 
ing for Y\ rnile on the L. S. 

miles to a pt of high land on the L. Side, passed a 
willow Island (3) 

on the L. Side passed a Sand bar on the S. S. (4) 

mile on the L. S. to a pt. 

miles to the left Side of an Island (5) in the mid river 

Mile to the head of the Willows at the head of the S. 
Grouse IsH 
214 miles to a point on the main S. S. a large Sand bar 
from the upper point of the Island high land on 
both Sides opposit this Island. 

from this river {which heads in the i". black mountains) we 
proceeded on under a gentle Breeze from the S.W. at 
10 oClock we Saw 2 Indians on the S.S. thev asked for some- 
thing to eat, & informed us they were part of the Beiffs De 
Medescns [Beuffles de Medecines) Lodge on their way to the 

N. 42° W. 


N. 30? E. 


N. 30? W. 


N. 35° VV. 
N. ID? W. 
N. 80? W. 
N. 45° W. 







1 Now Owl, or Moreau, River. — Ed. 



Rickerrees passed (j) a Willow Island in a bend to the S.S. 
(4) at 5 Miles pass'! a willow Island on the S.S. Wind hard 
from the South in the evening I walked on an (5) Island 
nearly the middle ot" the river Called Grous Island, {the walls 
of a village on this island) one of the men killed a Shee 
Brarow,' another man Killed a Black tail Deer, the largest 
Doe I ever Saw, (Black under her breast) this Island is 
nearly 1 y^ m'.' Squar no timber high and Covered with grass 
wild rye and contains Great Numbers of Grouse, we pro- 
ceeded on a Short distance above the Island and Camped on 
the S.S. a fine evening. 

%'!; of October Monday 1804. — 

a cool morning Set out early the wind from the N.W. 
proceeded on, passed the mouth of a Small Creek on the L.S. 
about 2^ miles above Grouse Island, (3) passed a Willow 
Island which divides the Current equilly. (2) passed the 
mouth of a River called by the Ricares IVe tar hoo' on the 
L.S. this river is 120 yards wide, the water of which at this 
time is Confined within 20 yards, dischargeing but a Small 
quantity, throwing out mud with Small propotion of Sand, 
great quantities of the red Berries, ressembling Currents, are 
on the river in every bend. Jj\ jj . 00" Lattitude from the 
obsevation of to day at the mouth of this river {heads in the 
Black mount'n) is 45 . 39'. 5 " North, proceeded on passed a 
(3) Small river of 25 yards wide Called (4) Rear par or Beaver 
Dam R: this river \_Ma ro pa'\^ is entirely chocked up with 
mud, with a Streem of i Inch Diamiter passing through, des- 
charging no Sand, at i (5) mile passed the lower pint of 
an Island close on the L.S. 2 of our men discovered the 
ricckerree village, about the Center of the Island on the L. 
Side on the main Shore, this Island is about 3 miles long, 
Seperated from the L.S. by a Channel of about 60 yards wide 
verrv Deep, The Isl'? is covered with fields, where those 
People raise their Corn Tobacco Beens &c. &c. Great num- 

' Corrupt form of hlaireau (the badger). — Ed. 

- Now Grand River ; an Indian agency of tlie same name at its moutli. — Ed. 

^ Known as Rampart Creek, and Oak Creek. — Ed. 



bers of those people came on the Island to See us pass, we 
passed above the head of the Island & Cap! Lewis with 2 
interpeters & 2 men went to the Village I formed a Camp of 
the french & the guard on Shore, with one Sentinal on board 
of the boat at anchor, a pleasent evening all things arranged 
both for Peace or War, This Village (6) is Situated about 
the center of a large Island near the L. Side & near the foot 
of Some high bald uneaven hills. Several french men Came 
up with Cap! Lewis in a Perogue, one of which is a M! Gravel- 
lin ^ a man well versed in the language of this nation and gave 
us some information relitive to the Countrey nat[i]on &c. 

Courses Distance and reffurences. — 8'f? Oct' 

N. 70° W 2 Miles to a tree in the bend to the L. Side, passed a 

small Creek L. S. (i) 
I miles to the p! on the S. S. 
21^ to the mo: of a River \_We ter hoo 120 yds ividi-\ in 

the bend to the L. S. (2) passing over a willow 

Island (3) 
I mile on the L. Side 
I mile on the L. S. to the Mouth of a Small river \Ma- 

ro-pa] (4) 
I mile to the lower p! of an Isl (5) 
3 !,< Miles to a p'. on the S. S. pass"* the head of the Is? and 
Y2. the i" rickorries Village (6) opps"* a Creek we 

Call after the i" Chief Ka kaw iss assa Creek. L. S. 

^Orderly Book; Clark:] Orders October the S'f iSo+. 

Robert Frazer being regularly inlisted and haveing become 
one of the Corps of Vollenteers for North-IVestern Discovery, he 
is therefore to be viewed & respected accordingly ; and will be 
anexed to Sergeant Gass's mess. 

W*.' Clark Cp! &c. 
Meriwether Lewis 
Cap! i" U.S. Reg! Infty 


10° w. 


15° E. 


40? E. 


30° E 





1 Joseph Gravelines, a trader residing among the Arikara tribe, in company with 
Antoine Tabeau (Tabo), who is mentioned below. — Ed. 

Page from the Orderly book, signed by both 
Lewis and Clark. 


[^Clark Q River Marofia <)"• of Ocloher lio^. Tuesday 

;i vvindcy rainey night, and cold, So much So we Could not 
speek with the Indians to day the three great Chiefs and 
many others Came to see us to day, we gave them some 
tobacco and informed them we would Speek on tomorrow, 
the day continued Cold &: windey some rain Sorry Canoos 
of Skins passed down from the 2 Villages a Short distance 
above, and many Came to view us all day, much astonished 
at my black Servent, who did not lose the opportunity of 
[displaying — Ed.] his powers Strength &c. &:c. this nation 
never Saw a black man before.' 

Several hunters Came in with loades of meat, I observed 
Several Canoos made of a Single Buffalow Skin with 3 thre 
squars Cross the river to day in waves as high as I ever Saw 
them on this river, quite uncomposed I have a Slite Plursie 
this evening verrv cold ike. &c." 

i" Chief's name Ka kawhsassa (lighting Crow) 

2'' do do Pocasse (or Hav) 

3':' do do piabeto (or Eagles feather) 

10'* of October IVednesday 1804. 

a fine morning wind from the S.E. at about ii oClock the 
wind Shifted, to the N. W. we prepare all things ready to 
Speak to the Indians, M^ Tabo & M' Gravolin came to brack- 

' Bv way of amusement lie told them that lie had once been a wild animal, and 
caught and tamed by his master ; and to convince them showed them feats of strength 
which added to his looks made him more terrible than we wished him to be. — 
BiDDLE (i, p. lOl). 

In a rare pamphlet entitled Ad'ventures of V.enas Leonard (Clearfield, Pa., 1S39) 
— for information regarding which see Chittenden's Amer. Fur Trade, i, p. 397 — 
is an account ot a negro residing (1832-34) in the Crow village at the junction of 
Bighorn and Stinking rivers, who apparently was. Clark's servant York. He told 
Leonard that he first went to that country with Lewis and Clark, with whom he 
returned to Missouri ; that he afterward accompanied a trader up the Missouri, and 
had remained with the. Indians ever since (about ten or twelve years). He had, 
when Leonard saw him, four Indian wives, and possessed much reputation and influ- 
ence among the Crows, from whom he secured the return of some horses which they 
had stolen from Leonard's party. — Walter B. Douglas (St. Louis). 

- Wind blew hard this morning drove the boat from her anker, to shore. — 
Clark (nuinornndum on p. 214 of Codex C). 



fast with us the Cheefs &c. came from the lower Town, but 
none from the i upper Towns, which is the largest, we Con- 
tinue to delay & waite for them at 12 oClock Despatched 
Gravelin to envite them to come down, we have every reason 
to believe that a gellousy exists between the Villages for fear 
of our makeing the i" Cheif from the lower Village, at one 
oClock the Cheifs all assembled & after Some little Cerremony 
the council Commenced, we inform'* them what we had told 
the others before i. e. Ottoes & Seaux. made 3 Cheif i for 
each Village ; gave them presents, after the Council was 
over we Shot the air guns which astonished them much, the[y] 
then Departed and we rested Secure all night. Those Indians 
wer much astonished at my Servent, they never Saw a black 
man before, all flocked around him & examin** him from top 
to toe, he Carried on the joke and made himself more turribal 
than we wished him to doe. Those Indians are not fond of 
Spirt' Licquer. of any kind ^ 

ii','- October Thursday 1804 — 

a fine morning the wind from the S.E. at 1 1 oClock we 
met the Grand Cheif in Councel and he made a Short Speech 
thanking us for what we had given him & his nation promisse- 
ing to attend to the Council we had given him & informed 
us the road was open & no one dare Shut it, & we might 
Departe at pleasure, at i oClock we Set out for the upper 
Villages 3 miles destant, the Grand Cheif & nephew on board, 
proceeded on at i mile took in the 2'* Cheif & Came too off 
the first \_second^ Village Seperated from the 3''' by a Creek 
after arrangeing all matters we walked up with the 2'! Cheif to 
his Village, and Set talking on Various Subjects untill late we 
also visited the upper or 3'.'' Village each of which gave us 
Something to eate in their way, and a fiew bushels of Corn 
Beens &c. &c. after being treated by everry civility by those 
people who are both pore & Durtey we returned to our boat 

^ Much pleased, the french Chief lost his presents by his Skin Canoe overset- 
ting, shot the air gun, the men traded some fiew articles for Robes had the Corn 
mill set up & shewed the Ind^ its opperation after Speaking to them &c. — Clark 
{tit lupra). 

[ 186] 


at about lo oClk. P M. informing them before we Departed 
that we would Speek to them tomorrow at there Seperate 
\'illages, Those people gave us to eate bread made of Corn 
be Beens, also Corn ik Beans boiH a large Been (of) which they 
rob the mice ot the Prarie [who colled fs? discover it) which is 
rich &c verry nurrishing also [6']quashes &c. all Tranquillity. 

Course Distance 5: Rctfurence 12"" [11'?] Oct' 

N. 45. E 2 Miles to the mouth of a Creek between the 2 upper 

Villages of the Rickeres L. S. ( i ) 
S. 75? E I y^ Miles the point on the L. S. passed the Village ( 2) 
N. 45? E. 2 M'' to a point of wood on the L. S. 
N. 20° W. 21^ miles to a p' on the S. S. 
N. 8 W. I y. Miles to a point on L. S. passed a Sand bar. 

12'* October Friday 180+ — 

I rose early after brackfast we joined the Indians who were 
waiting on the bank for us to come out and go and councel, 
we accordingly joined them and went to the house of the 2".'' 
CheifLi^wjY/ where there was many Cheif and Warriers & [they 
made us a present of — Biuule] about 7 bushels of Corn, a 
pr. of Leagins, a twist of their Tobacco, & Seeds of 2 Kind 
of Tobacco ' we Set Some time before the Councill Com- 
menced this man Spoke at Some length declareing his dis- 
potion to believe and prosue our Councils, his intention ot 
going to Visit his great father acknowledged the Satisfaction 
in receiveing the presents &c. rais'g a Doubt as to the Satty 
in passing the Nations below particularly the Souex. requested 
us to take a Chief of their nation and make a good peace with 
Mandins & nations above, after answering those parts of the 
2'' Cheifs Speech which required it, which appeared to give 
general Satisfaction we went to the Village of the j'"" Chief and 
as usial Some Serimony took place before he Could Speek to 
us on the Great Subject. This Chief Spoke verry much in 
the [same] Stile on nearly the Same Subjects of the other Chief 

* Their tobacco is ditFerent from any I had before seen ; it answers for smoking, 
but not for chewing. — Gass (p. 73). 

[ 187 ] 


who Set by his Side, more Sincear & pleasently, he presented 
us with about 10 bushels of Corn' Some beens & [s]quashes 
all of which we acksepted with much pleasure, after we had 
ans"! his Speech & give them Some account of the Magnitude 
& power of our Countrey which pleased and astonished them 
verrv much we returned to our boat, the Chiefs accompanied 
us on board, we gave them Some Sugar a little Salt and a 
Sun Glass, & Set 2 on Shore & the third proceeded on with 
us to the Mandens by name [blank space in MS.] at 2 
oClock we Set out the inhabitents of the two Villages Viewing 
us from the banks, we proceeded on about 9)^ miles and 
Camped on the S.S. at Some woods passed, the evening Clear 
& pleasent Cool. 

The Nation of the Rickerries {Rickaras) is about 600 men 
(M' Taboe says, I think 500 men) (Mr Tabat is right) able to 
bear arms a Great perpotion ot them have fusees they 
appear to be peacefuU, their men tall and perpotiend," womin 
Small and industerous, raise great quantities of Corn Beens 
Simnins* &c. also Tobacco for the men to Smoke they col- 
lect all the wood and do the drugery as Common amongst 

This nation is {two villages are) made up of 10 {nine) Dif- 
ferent Tribes of the Pania {Panics), who had formerly been 
Seperate, but by Commotion and war with their neighbours 
have Come reduced and compelled to come together for pro- 
tection. The curruption of the language of those different 
Tribes has So reduced the language that the Different Villages 
do not understan all the words of the others. Those people 
are Durtey, Kind, pore, & extravigent. pursessing national 
pride, not beggarley recive what is given with great pleasure. 
Live in warm houses, large and built in an oxigon [octagon] 
form forming a cone at top which is left open for the smoke 

1 Recive Some Corn from the i'.' & 3"' Clif. about lo bushels. — Clark (memo- 
randum on p. 224 of Codex C). 

2 Gass says of the Ankara (])p. 73, 74) that " they are the best-looking, most 
cleanly, most friendly and industrious Indians I have ever seen on the voyage." — F.D. 

' A form of "simlin" or "simnel," a name used in the Southern States for 
summer squashes. — Ed. 

[ 188] 


to pass, those houses are Generally 30 or 40 foot Diamiter, 
Gov'! with earth on poles willows & grass to prevent the earths 
passing thro'.' Those people express an inclination to be at 
peace with all nations. The Seaux who trade the goods which 
they get of the Britush Traders for their Corn," and [have] 
great influence over the Rickeres, poison their minds and keep 
them in perpetial dread. 

I saw Some of the Chien {Chyenne) or Dog Indians, also a 
man of a nation under the Court Nue, This nation is at war 
with the Crow Indians be have 3 children prisoners. 

a curious custom with the Souix as well as the rickeres is to 
give handsom squars to those whome they wish to Show some 
acknowledgements to. The Seauex we got clare of without 
taking their squars, they followed us with Squars two davs. 
The Rickores we put off dureing the time we were at the 
Towns but 2 \Jiandsom young] Squars were Sent by a man to 
follow us, they came up this evening, and pursisted in their 

Dress of the men of this nation is Simplv a p' mockerson, 
Leagin, flap in front & a Buffalovv roabe, with ther hair arms 
& ears Deckorated. 

The womin, wore Mockersons leagins fringed and a Shirt 
of Goat Skins, Some with Sleaves this garment is longe & 
Genl-' white & fringed, tied at the waste[,] with a roabe, in 
Summer without hair. 

' Cf. the more detailed descriptions of these huts given by Biddle (i, p. io6), 
Gass (p. 72), and Brackenridge {Louisiana, p. S4S). — Ed. 

^ The English traders not only traffic with the Indians about the shining [Rocky] 
mountains, but they have extended it to the Mandans on the Missouri, and to several 
other tribes both above and below them. The Spaniards also from Santa Fe occasion- 
ally traffic with the Indians about the waters of the Kansas, as likewise with those on 
the river Platte. — Stoddard {Louisiana, pp. 453, +54). 

^ Brackenridge say? {Louisiana, p. 247) : "It is part of their hospitality, to offer 
the guest their wife, sister, or maid servant, according to the estimation in which the 
guest is held, and to refuse, is considered as treating the host with contempt." This 
was a custom widely prevalent among Indian tribes, especially those of the Far West. 
Biddle says (i, p. 105) that Arikara regarded such intercourse with strangers as dis- 
graceful, when occurring without the husband's or brother's consent. — Ed. 














+ 8 



Shar ha (^chien) 

[Memorandum made bv Clark on the inside front cover of Codex C : ] 

Names of the nations who come to the Ricares to trafick and 
bring Horses & robes 

O I - Kun-na-nar-Uesh — (Gens des vach)' Blue beeds. 

Hill Climbers 
the people who pen Buffaloes to cetch them 
Fox Indians 
white hair's 
Tideing Indians 
Skin pricks 
The village on the other side 
10 IVe hee skeu(chien) — The villagers on this side 

Those nations all live on the praries from S W by S to West of the 
Ricarees all speek different languages and are numerous, all follow the 
Buffalow and winter near the mountains. 

I ■>,'[[ of October Satturday i 804 — 

one man J. Newmon confined for mutinous expression Set 
out early proceeded on, pass"* a camp of Seauex on the S.S. 
those people only viewed us & did not Speak one word. The 
visiters of last evening all except one returned which is the 
Brother of the Chief we have on board passed ( i ) a Creek 
13 yds on the S.S. at 1 8 ml above the Town heading in some 
Ponds a Short Dist! to the N.E. we call Stone Idol C. (well 
to observe here that the Yankton or R Jacque heads at about 
2 Days March of this place Easterly, the R. de Seaux one 
Day further, the Chien (Chayenne the Chay' formerly there) a 
branch of R. Rouche {Rouge) Still bevend, and the River 
S'. Peters 4 Days march from this place on the Same Derection 
(Informt" of the Rickores). Passed a large willow (2) & Sand 
Islands above the mouth of the last Creek, at 21 Miles 

^ A French nickname, meaning "cow-people" — that is, Butfalo tribe. The 
Indian name here given — written by Biddle (i, p. 54) Kaninaviesch — is only an 
Chippewa appellation of that tribe, now known as the Arapaho, one of the westernmost 
Algonquian tribes (see Mooney's sketch of this people, in U. S. Bur. Ethnol. Rep., 
1892-93, pp. 953-957). Lewis, however, in his "Statistical View" (p. 18) 
applies the name Ar-nih'-pa-hoo' to a branch of the Pawnee. — Ed. 

[ 190 ] 


above the Village passed a (3) Creek about 15 yards wide on 
the L.S. we call after 2'? Chief Pocasse (or Hay), nearly 
opposit this Creek a fiew miles from the river on the S.S. 2 
Stones resembling humane persons & one resembling a Dog is 
Situated in the open Frarie, to those Stones the Rickores 
pay Great reverance make offerings {votive Dress if^c.) when- 
ever they pass (Informt" of the Chief & Intepeter) those 
People have a curious Tredition of those Stones, one was a 
man in Love, one a Girl whose parents would not let [them] 
marry {The man as is customary went off to mourn., the female 
followed.), the Dog went to morn with them all turned to 
Stone gradually, commenceing at the feet. Those people fed 
on grapes untill they turned, & the woman has a bunch of 
grapes yet in her hand, on the river near the place those are 
Said to be Situated, we obs'! a greater quantity ot fine grapes 
than I ever Saw at one place. 

The river above the Island on which the Lower Reckores 
Village is Situated is narrow and contf a great[er] propotion of 
Timber than below, the bottoms on both Sides is covered 
with timber the up lands naked the current jentle and Sand 
bars confined to the points Generally. 

We proceeded on under a fine Breeze from the S.E. and 
camped late at the upper part of Some wood on the Starboard 
Side. Cold & Some rain this evening, we Sent out hunters 
killed one Deer. 

we Tried the Prisoner Newmon last night by 9 ot his Peers 
they did " Centence him 75 Lashes & Disbanded [from] the 

Course distance cSc reffurence — 13''' Oct' 

N. 60? VV. 3 .Miles to a p! on the S. S. 

N. 40. W. 2 Miles to a p' of timber on L. S. 

N. 10. VV. 2 Miles to the p! on the L.- S. 

N. 53 W. li .M'' to a p' on the S. S. 

North 2 M'.' to a p' on the L. S. opsit the mouth of a Creek 

"on the S. S. (i) 
N. 70? W. 4i<< Miles to a p' on the S. S. passing a Island (2) and 

ops') a Creek L. S. (3) 
N. 18? E 3 M'* to the upper point of Some wood on the S. S. and 
jO camped. 



^Orderly Book; Clark:] Orders lyi' of October 1804 

A Court Martial to Consist of nine members will set to day 
at 12 oClock for the trial of John Newmon now under Con- 
finement. Cap! Clark will attend to the forms & rules of a 
president without giveing his opinion. 

Detail for the Court Martial 

Serg' John Oidaway W"" Werner 

Sergeant Pat: Gass W"" Bratten 

Jo: Shields Geo: Shannon 

JH: Hall Silas Goodrich 
Jo. Collins 

Meriwether Lewis Cap! 

i^.' U'S. Reg! Infty 
W" Clark Cap' 

or E. N W D [Engineer North Western 
Discovery. — Ed.] 

QLewis :] 

In conformity to the above order the Court martial con- 
vened this day for the trial of John Newman, charged with 
" having uttered repeated expressions of a highly criminal and 
" mutinous nature ; the same having a tendency not only to 
" distroy every principle of military discipline, but also to 
" alienate the affections of the individuals composing this 
" detatchment to their officers, and disafFect them to the ser- 
" vice for which they have been so sacredly and solemnly 
" engaged." The Prisonar plead not guil\_t'\y to the charge 
exhibited against him. The court after having duly consid- 
ered the evidence aduced, as well as the defence of the said 
prisonor, are unanimously of opinion that the prisonor John 
Newman is guilty of every part of the charge exhibited against 
him, and do sentence him agreeably to the rules and articles 
of war, to receive seventy five lashes on his bear back, and to 
be henceforth discarded from the perminent partv engaged for 
North Western discovery ; two thirds of the Court concurring 

[ 192 ] 


in the sum and nature of the punishment awarded, the com- 
manding officers approve and confirm the sentence of the 
court, and direct the punishment take place tomorrow between 
the hours of one and two P.M. The commanding officers 
further direct that John Newman in future be attatched to the 
mess and crew of the red Perogue as a labouring hand on 
board the same, and that he be deprived of his arms and 
accoutrements, and not be permited the honor of mounting 
guard untill further orders; the commanding officers further 
direct that in lue of the guard duty from which Newman has 
been exempted by virtue of this order, that he shall be 
exposed to such drudgeries as they may think proper to direct 
from time to time with a view to the general relief of the 

[^Clark:] 14^;* of October Sunday 1804. — 

Some rain last night all wet & cold, we Set [out] early the 
rain contin'.' all Day, at [blank in MS.] miles we passed a 
(i) Creek on the L.S. 15 yards wide this Creek we call after 
the 2'^ Chief Piaheto (or Eagles feather) at i oClock we 
halted on a Sand bar & after Dinner executed the Sentence of 
the Court Martial so far a[s] giveing the Corporal punish- 
ment, & proceeded on a fiew Miles, the wind a head from 
N.E. Camped in a Cove of the bank on the S.S.' ime- 
diately opposit our Camp on the L.S. 1 observe an antient 
fortification the Walls of which appear to be 8 or 10 feet high, 
inmost of it washed in) the evening wet and disagreeable, the 
river Something wider more timber on the banks. 

The punishment of this day allarm^ the Indian Chief verry 
much, he cried aloud (or effected to cry) I explained the 
Cause of the punishment and the necessity {0/ it) which he 
{also) thought examples were also necessary, & he himself had 
made them by Death, his nation never whiped even their 
Children, from their burth. 

' In North Dakota, close to 46 , at a creek now called Thunder-hawk. Piaheto 
is now Blackfoot Creek. — CouES (Z,. and C, i, p. 168). 
VOL. I. -.3 [193] 


Courses & Distance & refFurences. — 14'!' 

S. 70 VV. I M'.' to a p! on the L.S. the Same course continud 2 

M! to a bend L.S. 
N. 63° E. 2 M'' to the p! on the S.S. pass'' a Creek on the 

L.S. (I) 
N. 30° W. 1 1^ Ml to a large Tree on the L.S. 
N. 40° E. I y, M'' to some trees on the S.S. 
N 60° W. 3 M'' to a p! on the L.S. Passing 

N. 70° W. 3 Miles to a point on the S.S. passed an antient forti- 
12 fication on the L.S. 

15''' of October Monday 1804 — 

rained all last night, we Set out early and proceeded on at 
3 miles passed an Ind" Camp [of hunters Ricaras) on the S.S. 
we halted above and about 30 of the Indians came over in 
their canoos of Skins, we eate with them, they give us meat, 
in return we gave fish hooks & some beeds, about a mile 
higher we came too on the L.S. at the camp of the Recores 
(ricaras) of about 8 Lodges, we also eate and they gave 
Some meat, we proceeded on Saw numbers of Indians on 
both Sides passing a Creek, Saw many curious hills, high and 
much the resemblance of a house with a hiped {like ours) roof, 
at 12 oClock it cleared away and the evening was pleasent, 
wind from the N.E. at Sunset we arrived at a Camp of 
Recares of 10 Lodges on the S.S. we came too and camped 
near them Cap! Lewis and my self went with the Chief who 
accompanis us, to the Huts of Several of the men all of 
whome Smoked & gave us something to eate also Some meat 
to take away, those people were kind and appeared to be 
much pis!" at the attentioned paid them. 

Those people are much pleased with mv black Servent. 
Their womin verry fond of carressing our men &c. 













Course Distance & RefFurences — i^"' Oct 

Miles to a Creek on the L.S. passing over a Sand bar 
makeing from the S. p' 

Miles to a point of wood on the L. S. passing over a 
sand point on the S.S. 

Miles to a point of wood on the S. S. passing old Vil- 
lage of the Shar ha or Chien Indians on the L.S. 
below a Creek on the same Side, passed a Camp 
of Ricares on S.S. 

1 6'* of October Tuesday 1804 — 

Some rain this morning, 2 young squars verry anxious to 
accompany us, we Set out with our Chief on board by name 
Ar ke tar na shar or Chief of the Town, a little above our 
camp on the L.S. passed a circular work, where the, Shdr ha 
or Chien, or Dog Indians formerly lived a short distance 
above passed a Creek which we call Chien Creek {Chayenne or 
Shar ha {M' Hayley says Not Chien), above is a willow Island 
Situated near (i) the L. Side a large Sand bar above & on 
both Sides (2) passed a Creek above the Island on the L.S. 
call So-harch (or Girls) Creek, at 2 miles higher up (3) passed 
a Creek on L.S. call Charpart ' (or womins) Creek, passed 
(5) an Island Situated in a bend to the S.S. this Is^ is about 
\\ Miles long, covered with timber Such as Cotton wood, 
ops'! the lower point a creek coms in on [sentence incom- 
plete — Ed.] the S.S. called by the Indians Kee tooch Sar 
kar nar [Keetooshsahawna — Biddle] (or place of Beaver) 
above the Island a small river coms in about 35 yards wide 
called IVar ra con ne^ or (Elk Shed their horns). The Island 
is called Carp Island by Ivens [Evans] Wind hard from the 
N.W. Saw great numbers of Goats on the Shore S.S. pro- 
ceeded on Cap! Lewis & the Indian Chief walked on Shore, 
soon after I discovered great numbers ot Goats in the river, 
and Indians on the Shore on each Side, as I approached or 

' These names are spelled by Biddle, Sohawcli and Chapawt ; he says that tiiey 
are Arikara words. — Ed. 

2 The present name is Big Beaver Creek ; at its mouth is the town of Emmons- 
biirg, N. D. — Ed. 

[ 195 ] 


got nearer I discovered boys in the water Killing the goats 
with Sticks and hailing them to Shore, Those on the banks 
Shot them with arrows and as they approach;* the Shore would 
turn them back of this Gangue of Goats I counted 58 of 
which they had killed on the Shore, one of our hunters out 
with Cap Lewis killed three Goats, we passed the Camp on 
the S.S. and proceeded yi mile and camped on the L.S. 
many Indians came to the boat to See, Some came across 
late at night, as they approach they hollowed and Sung, 
after Staving a short time 2 went for Some meat, and returned 
in a Short time with fresh & Dried Buffalow, also goat, those 
Indians Stayed all night, they Sung and was verry merry the 
greater part of the night. 

Course Distance & refFurences — 16''' Oct 

North 4 Miles to a p' on the S.S. Passed a Willow Island 

L. S. (i) a Creek (2) above the Is'^ & one at 2 
miles further (3) 

N. 10? E. 6. Miles to the upper point of Some Timber on the L. S. 
ops'! the mouth of a Creek on the S. S. (4) passed 
a Isl^ on the S.S. (5) ops^ the Lower p! of which 
comes in a Creek (5) 

North Yi Mile on the L. Side 

N. 30° W. I M! on the L. point High L'! 

N. 38° W. 3 Miles to a point on the S.S. 


Course Distance & refFurence. 



N. 10° E. \y2 

North y. 

N. lo'^ W. y_ 
N. 33- W. 3i_ 

Miles to a p! on the L.S. 

m' on the L.S. 

M' on the L.S. 

M'!' to the Commencement of Some woods on the S.S. 

note from the Ricares to the River Jacque near N.E. 
is about 40 m'? to the Chien a fork of R Rogue' 20 {further) 
passing the Souix River near the Chien this from information 
of M! Graveline who passed through this Countrey. 

1 Meaning Rouge — that is, Red River (of the North). — Ed. 
[ 196 ] 


17'* of October Wednesday 1804. — 

Set out early a fine morning the wind from the N.W. 
after brackfast I walked on Shore with the Indian Chief & 
Interpeters, Saw Buffalow, Elk and Great numbers of Goats 
in large gangues (I am told by M' G. that those animals 
winter in the Black Mountains to feed on timber (sc) and this 
is about the Season they cross from the East of the Missouries 
to go to that Mountain, they return in the Spring and pass 
the Missouries in great numbers (to the plains). This Chief 
tells me of a number of their Treditions about Turtles, Snakes, 
&c. and the power of a perticeler rock or Cove on the next 
river which informs ot every thing none of those I think 
worth while mentioning. The wind So hard a head the [boat] 
could could not move after lo oClock. Cap! Louis took the 
altitude of the Sun Lat:* 46° . 2J . S?" I killed 3 Deer, and 
the hunters with me killed 3 also, the Indian Shot one but 
could not get it, 1 scafFeled ' up the Deer & returned & met 
the boat after night on the L.S. about 6 miles above the place 
we camped last night, one of the men saw a number of 
Snakes, Cap" Lewis Saw a large Beaver house S.S. 1 cought 
a whipprwill Small & not common." the leaves are falling 
fast, the river wide and full of Sand bars. Great numbers of 
verry large Stone on the Sides of the hills & some rock of a 
brownish Colour in the L:" Bend below this. 

Great numbers of Goats are flocking down to the S. Side of 
the river, on their way to the Black mountains where they 
winter Those animals return in the Spring in the Same way 
& scatter in different directions. 

1%'!; of October Thursday 1804 — 

Set out earlv proceeded on at 6 m':' passed the mouth of 
(i) la [Lc"] Boulet (or Cannon Ball River) about 140 yards 
wide on the L.S. this river heads in the Court Not or Black 

1 That is, scaffolded, to be above the reach of wolves. — Ed. 

2 Nuttall's whippoorwill {Phalanoptilus Nuttalli). — Ed. 

[ 197] 


Mountains (a fine Day) above the mouth of the river Great 
numbers of Stone perfectly round with fine Grit are in the 
Bluff and on the Shore, the river takes its name from those 
Stones which resemble Cannon Balls. The water of this 
river is confined within 40 yards. We met 2 frenchmen in 
a perogue Decending from hunting, & complained of the 
Mandans robing them of 4 Traps their furs & Several other 
articles. Those men were in the imploy of our Ricaree inter- 
peter M: Gravelin the[y] turned & foUowered us. 

Saw Great numbers of Goats on the S.S. comeing to the 
river our hunters Killed 4 of them Some run back and 
others crossed & proceded on their journey to the Court Nou 
at (3) passed a Small River called Che wah or fish river' on 
the S.S. this river is about 28 yards wide and heads to the 
N.E. passed a small creek on the L.S. i mile above the last, 
and camped on a Sand bar on the L.S. opposit to us we Saw 
a Gangue of Buffalow bulls which we did not think worth 
while to kill, our hunters killed 4 Coats [Goats] 6 Deer 
4 Elk & a pelican & informs that they Saw in one gang : 248 
Elk, (I walked on Shore in the evening with a view to see 
Some of those remarkable places mentioned by evins [Evans 
— Ed.], none of which I could find). The Countrey in this 
Quarter is Generally leavel & fine Some high Short hills, and 
some ragid ranges of Hills at a Distance 

Course Distance & RefFerences — iS"" Oct 

N. 50°. W. 3 Miles to the mouth of a River ( i ) cannon ball L. S. 
N. 20° W. 2 Miles to a point of wood land on the S. S. passing a 

Bluff in which theres round stone (2) 
North 2.1 miles to a point of wood land on the L. S. 

N. 15° W. y. Mile on the L. S. ops'* a Creek on the S. S. (3) 
N. 10°. E. 2jX miles to a point on the S. S. passing a small Creek 

on L. S. 
N. 20° E. 3 miles to a point of woods on the L. S. passing over a 
7^ Sand bar 

1 Now Long Lake Creek : this day's encampment was near Fort Rice. — Ed. 
[ 198] 


The recaree Indians inform us that thev find no black 
tail Deer as high up as this place, those we find are of the fallow 
Deer kind 

fi@°" The recarees are not fond of Spiritous liquers, nor do 
they apper to be fond of Receiveing any or thankfull for it. 
\^they say we are no friends or we would not give them what makes 
them fools'^ . 

19','' October Friday 1804. — 

a fine morning wind from the S.E. we Set out early under 
a gentle Breeze and proceeded on verry well, more timber 
than common on the banks on this part of the river, passed 
a large Pond on the S.S. I walked out on the Hills & observed 
Great numbers of Buffalow feeding on both Sides of the river 
I counted 52 Gangues of Buffalow & 3 of Elk at one View, 
all the runs which come from the high hills which is Generally 
about one or 1 miles from the water is brackish and near the 
Hills (the Salts are) and the Sides of the Hills & edges of the 
Streems, \_the mineral salts appear^ I saw Some remarkable 
round hills forming a cone at top one about 90 foot one 60 & 
several others Smaller, the Indian Chief say that the Callemet 
bird^ live in the holes of those hills, the holes form by the 
water washing [away] this Some parts in its passage Down 
from the top — near one of those noles [Knolls], on a point 
of a hill 90 feet above the lower plane I observed the remains 
of an old village, [high, strong, watchtower i^c.) which had been 
fortified, the Indian Chief with us tels me, a party of Man- 
dins lived there, \_Here first saw ruins of Mandan nation^ we 
proceeded on & camped on the S. S. opposit the upper of 
those conceal hills, our hunters killed 4 Elk 6 Deer & a 
pelican, I saw Swans in a Pond & killed a fat Deer in my 
walk, Saw about 10 wolves. This day is pleasent 

' The golden eagle (Aquila chrysaitos) — thus named because its tail-feathers are 
used to decorate the calumet-pipes of the Indians, who attach great value to these 
ornaments. — Ed. 

[ 199] 


Course Distance & reffurence — 19'.'' Octr. 

N. 60° W. 2^ M'.' to a p' on the S.S. Passed a Creek on the S.S. 

N. 40° W. 2 Ml* to Some wood in a bend on the L.S. 

N. 10? E. ijA mile to the point on the L.S. 

N. 20° VV. 2 miles to a tree in the bend S.S. 

N. 83° W. 3 miles to the point on the S.S. 

N. 44? W. I mile to a Willow point on the L.S. p** a Lake S.S. 

N. 30? W. 2 miles to a tree in the bend to the S.S. 

N. 80° W. 3 !,■< miles to a point on the S.S. (2) opposit a round nole 
1-1/ on the L.S. a Deep bend to the L.S. (5c pond. 

Courses Distance & Reifers. — lo"" October 

N. 30? W 2 Miles to Some timber in a bend to the S.S. at a Creek (i ) 

N. 10? W. I mile on the S.S. 

N. 54° W. 3 miles to a p' on the L.S. Isl passing over a Sand bar 

S. S. 
N. 2 miles to some high trees in a bend on the S.S. passing 

the \ow'. p! Is^ (2) 
N. 70° W. 2 Miles to a p! on the S.S. passing the upper p" of the 

Island on the L.S. 
N. 50° W 2 M'* to the upper part of a Bluff in which there (3) is 

Stone Cole on the L.S. passing the I'.' old Mandin 
Ta" Village on the L.S. (4) 

20';^' of October Satturday 1804 — 

Set out early this morning and proceeded on the wind from 
the S.E. after brackfast I walked out on the L. Side to See 
those remarkable places pointed out by Evins, I saw an old 
remains of a village [covering 6 or 8 acres) on the Side of a hill 
which the Chief with Too ne tels me that nation lived in 2 \_a 
number'\ villages i on each Side of the river and the Trouble- 
som Seaux caused them to move about 40 miles higher up 
where they remained a fiew years & moved to the place they 
now live, (2) passed a small Creek on the S.S. (3) and one on 
the L. S. passed (4) a Island covered with willows laying 
in the middle of the river no current on the L.S. Camped on 
the L.So above a Bluff containing coal (5) of an inferior quallity, 
this bank is imediately above the old Village of the Mandans. 
The Countrey is fine, the high hills at a Distance with gradual 
[ 200 ] 

i8o4] TETON TO M.Wnws 

assents, I kil''. j Deer The Timber confined to the bottoms 
as useal which is much larger than below. Great numbers of 
Buffalow Elk &c Deer, Goats, our hunters killed lo Deer & 
a Goat to day and wounded a white Bear,' I saw several fresh 
tracks ot those animals which is 3 times as large as a mans 
track. The wind hard all Day from the N.K. & East, great 
numbers of bufFalow Swimming the river I observe near all 
large gangues of Buffalow wolves and when the bufFalow move 
those animals follow, and feed on those that are killed by 
accident or those that are too pore or fat to keep up with the 

11'.' October Sunday 1804 — 

a verry Cold night wind hard from the N.E. Some rain 
m the night which trosed as it tell at Day light it began to 
Snow and continued all the fore part of the Day passed just 
above our camp ( i ) a Small river on the L. S. called by 
the Indians Chiss-che-tar [Chisshetaw — Bidule] this river is 
about 38 yards wide containing a good Deel of water" Some 
distance up this River is Situated a Stone which the Indians 
have great faith in & say they See painted on the Stone, all 
the Calemetes & good fortune to hapin the nation & parties 
who visit it. a tree \_an oak'\ which Stands [alone'\ near this 
place \_about 2 miles off~\ in the open prarie which has withstood 
the fire they pay Great respect to make Holes and tie Strings 
thro \jhe skins of thei)-^ their necks and around this tree to 
make them brave [Cap'. Clarke saw this tree^ (all this is the 
information of Too ne \_is a whipperwill'\ the Cheif of the Ricares 
who accompanied us to the Mandins, at 2 Miles (2) passed 
the 2"'' Village of the Mandins which was in existance at the 
same time with the i'.' this Village is at the foot of a hill on 
the S.S. in a butifull & extensive plain, {nearly opposite is another 

> Pierre Crxizat- shot a white bear left his gun, &c. — Clark (memorandum on 
p. 223 of Codex C). 

2 Now known as Heart River ; just above are the towns of Bismarck and Man- 
dan, N. D., joined by the N. P. Railway bridge. Just below the river are the ruins 
of Fort Abraham Lincoln, Custer's post in 1876. The encampment of Lewis and 
Clark on October 20, i S04, was a little above the site of the fort. — O. D. Wheeler. 
[ 201 1 


village in a bottom the other side of Missouri) at this time covered 
with BufFalow. a cloudy afternoon, I killed a fine Buffalow, 
we camped on the L. S. [below an old Mandan village having 
passed another up a Creek j miles below on S''. S. verry cold 
Ground covered with Snow, one orter [otter] killd. 

Course Distance & refFer' — 21" Oct. 
S. 80° E. 2 miles to the place the Mandans had a village formerly 
at the foot of a riseing part of the plain. (1) on 
the S. S. passed a river 
N. 16? W. 1 1^ miles to a grove on the S. S. 

N. 40° W. 31^ Miles to a p' on the S. S. river wide and sand bars a 
~^ large willow Island 

22";' October Monday 1804 — 

last night at i oClock. I was violently and Suddenly attacked 
with the Rhumetism in the neck which was So violent I could 
not move Cap! [Lewis] applied a hot Stone raped in flannel, 
which gave me some temporey ease. We Set out early, the 
morning Cold at 7 oClock we came too at a camp of Teton 
Seaux on the L. S. those people 12 in number were nack"! ' 
and had the appearance of war, we have every reason to 
believe that they are going or have been to Steel Horses from 
the Mandins, they tell two Stories, we gave them nothing 
after takeing brackfast proceeded on. my Neck is yet verry 
painfull at times Spasms. [Passed old Mal^n^dan village near 
which we lay, another at ^ miles, one at 8 miles at mouth of large 
creek 4 miles further all on Larboard side.) [The mounds, g in 
number along river within 20 miles the fallen down earth of the 
houses, some teeth and bones of men i^ animals mixed in these vil- 
lages, human skulls are scattered in these villages) 

Camped on the L. Side, passed an Island Situated on the 
L. Side at the head of which we pass a bad place & Mandans 
village S. S. [2 miles above). The hunters killed a buffalow 

' 14 Sioux came to us on the L. S. with their guns cocked, believe them to be 
a war party they were naked except their Leagins. — Clark (memorandum on 
p. 223 of Codex C). 

Of these savages : " Notwithstanding the coldness of the weather, they had not an 
article of clothing except their breech-clouts." — Gass (p. 79). 

f 202 ] 


bull, they Say out of about 300 buffalow which they Saw, 
they did not, see one Cow. Great Deel of Beaver Sign. 
Several Cought every night. 

Course Distance & Reffurenccs — 22'' Oct 

N. 50° W 3 Miles to a p! on the S. S. 

N. 34° W. 3 Miles to the lower point on an Island on the L. S. 

N. 34° W. 3 Miles to a p! on the S. S. passed a bad riffle or bar 

North I Mile to a point on the L. S. a Deep bend to the S. S. 

N. 24° VV 2 miles to a point on the S. Side. 

lY;! of October Tueiday 1804 — 

a cloudy morning Some Snow Set out early, pass five 
Lodges which was Diserted, the fires yet burning we Suppose 
those were the Indians who robed the 2 french Trappers a fiew 
days ago those 2 men are now with us going up with a view 
to get their property from the Indians thro. us. cold & cloudy 
camped on the L. S. of the river' 

[Saw at 12 miles passed old village on S. S. of Maharha '"'' Ind"', a 
band of Minnetarr'eas who now live between Mand' isj Minne- 
tarres) (* Ah na ha wa's [Ahwahaways — Biddle] see note 10 
May 1805) 

Course Distance & reffurences 

N. 45° E 2 Miles to a Tree in the bend S. S. 

N. 18? W. i^ M'f to High land on S. S. 

N. 65° W. 3 M'= to a tree in the bend L. S. 

N. 33° W. 2 1/^ M'f to a p'. on the L. S. 

N. 18? W. I mile on the L. S. 

N. 45? W. 3 Miles to a point on the S. S. passing as common many 
71 Sand bars 

Course Distance & reffurences — 24'' Oct. 

N. 20° W. I Mile to a p^ on the S. S. 

N. 10° VV. 2 Miles to a p' on the L. S. at this place the river has lat- 

erlv Cut thro forming a large Island to the S. S. (i) 
N. 35° W. 2 Miles to an object on the S. S. 

N. 64? VV. 2 Miles to a point of high land on which the Mandins 
1 formerly lived (2) 

1 Near Sanger, N. D., a sliort distance south of Deer Creek. — Ed. 
[203 ] 


2 4'" October IVcinesday 1804 — 

Set out early a cloudy day Some little Snow in the morning 
I am Something better of the Rhumitism in my neck, a buti- 
full Countrey on both Sides of the river, the bottoms cov'! 
with wood, we have Seen no game on the river to day a 
prof of the Indians hunting in the neighbourhood (i) passed 
a Island on the S. S. made by the river Cutting through a 
point, by which the river is Shortened Several miles, on this 
Isl'' we Saw one of the Grand Chiefs of the Mandins, with five 
Lodges hunting, this Chief met the Chief of the Ricares who 
accompanied us with great Cordiallity & serimony Smoked the 
pipe & Cap! Lewis with the Interpeter went with the Chiefs to 
his Lodges at i mile distant, after his return we admited the 
Grand Chief & his brother for a few minits on our boat, pro- 
ceeded on a Short distance and camped on the S. S. below the 
old village of the Mandins & ricares} Soon after our land'g 
4 mandins came trom a camp above, the Ricares Chief went 
with them to their Camp, 

Course Distance & RefFurences — 25''' of October. 
N. 80° W. 3 Miles to a p' on the L. Side passed an old Village (l) 
West I Mile on the L. Side 

S. 80? VV. 1 Mile on the L. Side 
S. 60. W. 2 Miles to a p! on the L. Side 
S. 30° W. 2 Miles to a Tree on the Larboard Side 
S. 33° W. 2 Miles to a point on the Starboard Side opposit a high hill 

25';; of October ThursJav 1804. — 

a cold morning. Set out early under a gentle Breeze from 
the S. E. by E. proceeded on, passed (i) the 3'.'' old Village 
of the Mandans which has been Des? for many years. This 
village was situated on an eminance of about 40 foot above the 
water on the L. S. back for Several miles is a butifull Plain 
(2) at a Short distance above this old Village on a Continuation 
of the same eminance was Situated the Ricares Village {two ola 
villages of ricaras one on top of high hill the 2^ below in the bottom.) 
which has been avacuated only Six {five) years, {about j or ./ 

I Near Washburn, N. D. —Ed. 



miles above Ricaras villages are 3 old villages of Mandans near 
together here they lived when the R's came for protection — after- 
wards moved where they now live.) above this Village a large and 
extensive bottom for Several miles in which the Squars raised 
ther Corn, but little timber near the Villages, on the S. S. 
below is a point of excellent timber, and in the point Several 
miles above is fine timber, Several parties of Mandins rode 
to the river on the S. S. to view us indeed they are continu- 
elly in Sight Satisfying their Curiossities as to our apperance 
>kQ. We are told that the Seaux has latterlv fallen in with & 
Stole the horses of the Big bellies; on their way home they 
tell in with the Ossiniboin who killed them and took the 
horses, a frenchman has latterly been killed by the Indians 
on the Track to the tradeing establishment on the Ossinebine 
R. in the North of this place (or British fort) This frenchman 
has lived many years with the Mandins. we were frequently 
called on to land & talk to parties of the Mandins on the 
Shore; wind Shifted to the S. W at about 11 oClock and 
blew hard untill 3 oClk. clouded up river full of Sand bars 
& we are at a great loss to find the channel of the river, fre- 
quently run on the Sand bars which Delais us much passed 
a verry bad riffle of rocks in the evening by takeing the L. S. 
of a sand bar'- and camped on a Sand point on the S. S. 
opposit a high hill on the L. S. Several Indians came to see 
us this evening, amongst others the Sun of the late Great Chief 
of the Mandins {mourning for his father), this man has his two 
little fingers off; on inquireing the cause, was told it was 
customary for this nation to Show their greaf by some testi- 
mony of pain, and that it was not uncommon for them to take 
off 2 Smaller fingers of the hand {at the 2'' joints) and some 
times more with other marks of Savage effection 

' A common but somewhat erroneous translation of Gros Ventres, the French 
appellation of a tribe who form a division of the Arapaho people. The name 
Gros Ventres is also applied, as here, to the Siouan Minitaree (more correctly 
known as Hidarsa). See Mooney's Sketch of the Arapaho, U. S. Bur. Ethnol. Rep., 
1892-93, pp. 954, 555. The Assiniboin are a division of the Siouan family ; most 
of them dwell in British territory. Ed. 

- All obliged to get out and haul the boat over. —Clark (memorandum on 
p. 223 of Codex C). 

[ 305 ] 


The wind blew verrv hard this evening from the S.W. verry 
cold R. Fields with the Rhumitism in his neck, P. Crusat 
with the Same complaint in his Legs — the party otherwise 
is well, as to my self I feel but slight Simptoms of that dis- 
order at this time, 

26"! of October FriJay 1804 — 

Set out early wind from the S. W. proceeded on saw 
numbers of the Mandins on Shore, we set the Ricare Chief 
on Shore, and we proceeded on to the Camp of two of their 
Grand Chiefs where we delayed a fiew minits, with the Chiefs 
and proceeded on takeing two of their Chiefs on board & Some 
of the heavy articles of his house hold, Such as earthen pots & 
Corn, proceeded on, at this Camp Saw a (Mr) M' Cracken 
Englishmon from the N.W. {Hudson Bay) Company ^ this man 
Came nine Days ago to trade for horses & Buffalow robes, — 
one other man came with him. the Indians continued on the 
banks all day. but little wood on this part of the river, many 
Sand bars and bad places, water much devided between them 

We came too and camped on the L. S. abojut yi a mile 
below the i'.' Mandin Town on the L. S." soon after our 
arrival many men womin & children flocked down to See us, 
Cap! Lewis walked to the village with the principal Chiefs and 
our interpters, my Rhumatic complaint increasing I could 
not go. if I was well only one would have left the Boat & 
party untill we niew the Disposition of the Ind^ I Smoked 
with the Chiefs who came after. Those people ap? much 
pleased with the Corn Mill which we were obliged to use, & 
was fixed in the boat. 

1 Early explorations by French and English navigators and traders led to the 
establishment (May i, 1670) of the Hudson's Bay Coinpanv, with headquarters in 
London, who long held a monopoly of the fur trade in the great Northwest. In 
1783-84 some of the leading Montreal merchants organized a rival association, known 
as the North West Company ; but after a long and fierce competition for supremacy 
in the fur trade, the Hudson's Bay Company finally absorbed its rival (March 26, 
1 821). Hugh McCracken was an Irish " free trader," usually employed by the North 
West Company, who had accompanied David Thompson and Alexander Henry in 
their journeys tlirough the Upper Missouri region. — Ed. 

' Not far from Stanton, N. D. — Ed. 



Course Distance & reff" — 26"" Oct. 

N. 45° VV. I Mi to a tree in the bend to the Larboard Side 

N. 70? W. I M' to a p' on the S. S. 

S. 26. VV. 2 iVI" to a Camp of Mandans wood in the bend L. S. 

West. I iVl'.' to a tree in bend L. S. passed a Small Creek 

N. 27? VV. 3 M'» to the p' P'ort Mandan stands on Passing a Bluff 
^ of indt^ Coal L. S. 

N. 55? W. 1 M! to a p' on the L. S. 

S. 60° W. 2-M'.' to the 1" Village of the Mandins Situated on the L. 
1 1 Side in an open Plain. 

[ 207 ] 


Chapter V 


Clark's Journal, October 17 — December 27, 1804 
I^Clark :3 17','' of October Satturday 1804, Mandans. — 

WE Set out arlv came too at the Village on the L.S. 
this village is situated on an eminance ot about 50 
feet above the Water in a handsom plain it con- 
taines [blank space in MS.] houses^ in a kind of Picket 
work, the houses are round and verry large containing sev- 
eral families, as also their horses which is tied on one Side ot 
the enterance, a Description of those houses will be given 
hereafter, I walked up & Smoked a pipe with the Chiefs of 
the Village thev were anxious that I would stay and eat 
with them, my indisposition prevented my eating which dis- 
pleased them, untill a full explenation took place, I returned 
to the boat and Sent 1 Carrots of Tobacco for them to smoke, 
and proceeded on, passed the 2*1 Village and camped ops'! the 
Village of the Weter soon' \or Ah wah har ways'\ which is 
Situated on an eminance in a plain on the L.S. this Village 
is Small and Contains but fiew inhabitents.^ above this Vil- 
lage also above the Knife river on the Same Side of the 
Missouri the Big bellies Towns are Situated a further De- 

1 This village contains 40 or 30 lodges, built in the manner of those of the 
Rickarees. — Gass (p. 83). 

^ A division ot the Hidatsa, called by the French Gens de Soulier. They were 
kindred to the Minitaree but maintained a separate tribal organization until about 1836. 
See Washington Matthews' s Ethnography and Philology of the Hidatsa Indians 
(Washington, 1877) ; McGee's account of this tribe in U. S. Bur. Ethnol. Rep., 
1893-94, pp. 197, 198. — Ed. 

' These Indians have better complexions than most other Indians, and some of 
the children have fair hair. . . . These people do not bury their dead, but place the 
body on a scaffold, wrapped in a buffaloe robe, where it lies exposed- — Gass (p. 83). 



scription will be given hereafter as also of the Town of 
■ Mandans on this side of the river i. e. S. Side. 

a fine warm Day we met with a frenchman by the name of 
Jessomme^ which we imploy as an interpeter. 1 his man has a 
wife & Children in the village. Great numbers on both Sides 
flocked down to the bank to view us as we passed. Cap! 
Lewis with the Interpet' walked down to the village below our 
camp After delaying one hour he returned and informed me 
the Indians had returned to their village &c. &c., we Sent 
three twists \carrots\ of Tobacco '" by three voung men, to the 
three villages above enviting them to come Down & Council 
with us tomorrow, many Indians came to view us Some 
staved all night in the Camp of our party. We procured 
some information of M' Jessomme of the Chiefs of the 
Different Nations 

Course Distance 27''' 

West 2 Miles to a bend on the L. S. passing a Cole Bank 

N. 10° W. 2 miles to a Wood on the S. S. pass"" the 2 village on S. S. 

Sunday, zt'tl of October 1S04 — 

a windey Day, fair and clear many of the Grosvantres (or 
Big Bellies) and Watersones Came to See us and hear the 
Council the wind being So violently hard from the S.W. 
provented our going into Council, (indeed the Chiefs of the 
Mandans from the lower village Could not Cross, we made 
up the presents and entertained Several of the Curious Chiefs 
whome, wished to see the Boat which was verry curious to 
them viewing it as great medison, (whatever is mysterious or 
unintelligible is called great medicine) as they also Viewed my 
black Servent The Black Cat Grand Chief of the Mandans, 
Cap' Lewis & myself with an Interpeter walked up the river 

I Rene Jessaume was originally a " free trader" (one to whom certain quantities 
of goods would be advanced by a trading company), and had spent many years 
among the Mandan. — Ed. 

^ An article indispenceable in those cases. — Clark (memorandum on p. 123 of 
Codex C). 

VOL. I. — 14 [209] 


about i}4 miles our views were to examine the Situation & 
Timber for a fort, we found the Situation good but the 
Timber scerce, or at least Small timber such as would [not) 
answer us, We cunsulted the Grand Chief in respect to the 
other Chiefs of the Different Villages he gave the names of 
12. George Drewyer cought 2 Beaver above our Camp last 
niwht, we had Several presents from the woman of Corn 
boil'd homney. Soft Corn &c. &c. I prosent a jar {earth- 
thern jar glazed) to the Chiefs wife who receved it with much 
pleasure, our men verry chearfull this evening. We Sent 
the Chiefs of the Gross Vantres to Smoke a a pipe with the 
Grand Chef of the Mandans in his Village, & told them we 
would Speelc tomorrow. 

29'* October Monday 1804. — • 

a fair fine morning after Brackfast we were visited by the 
old Cheaf of the Big bellies or [blank space in MS.] this 
man was old and had transfired his power to his Sun, who was 
then out at War against the Snake Indians who inhabit the 
Rockey Mountains.^ at lo oClock the S.W. wind rose verry 
high, we Collected the Chiefs and Commenced a Councel 
ounder a orning, and our Sales Stretched around to keep out 
as much wind as possible, we delivered a long Speech the 
Substance of which [was] Similer to what we had Delivered to 
the nations below, the old Chief of the Grosvanters was 
verry restless before the Speech was halt ended observed that 
he Could not wait long that his Camp was exposed to the 
hostile Indians, &c. &c. he was rebuked by one of the Chiefs 
for his uneasiness at Such a time as the present, we at the 
end of the Speech mentioned the Recare who accompanied us 
to make a firm Peace, they all Smoked with him (I gave 
this Cheaf a Dollar of the American Coin as a Meadel with 
which he was much pleased) In Councel we presented him 

1 The Shoshoni, commonly called Snake Indians ; the principal tribes of the 
Shoshonean family. They originally occupied the region now included in southern 
Montana and Idaho and western Wyoming ; but were later forced across the Rocky 
Mountains by hostile prairie tribes. — El). 



with a certificate of his .sin[c]errity and good Conduct &c. 
We also Spoke about the fur which was taken from 2 french- 
men by a Mandan, and inform'' ot our intentions of Sending 
back the french hands, after the Council we gave the presents 
with much serimoney, and put the Meadels on the Chiefs we 
intended to make viz. one for each Town to whome we gave 
coats hats & flags, one Grand Chief to each nation to whome 
we gave meadels with the presidents likeness in Council w^e 
requested them to give us an answer tomorrow or as Soon as 
possible to Some Points which required their Deliberation, 
after the Council was over we Shot the air gun which appeared 
to astonish the nativs much, the greater part then retired 
Soon after. 

The Recare Cheaf Ar-ke-tar-na-shar came to me this even- 
ing and tells me that he wishes to return to his Village & 
nation, I put him off Saying tomorrow we would have an 
answer to our talk to the Satisfaction & send by him a String 
of Wompom informing what had passed here. a Iron or 
Steel Corn Mill which we gave to the Mandins,' was verry 
thankfully receved. The Prarie was Set on fire (or cought by 
accident) by a young man of the Mandins, the fire went with 
such velocity that it burnt to death a man & woman, who 
Could not get to any place of Safty, one man a woman & 
Child much burnt and Several narrowly escaped the flame, a 
boy half white was saved unhurt in the midst of the flaim, 
Those ignerent people say this boy was Saved by the Great 
Medison Speret because he was white. The couse of his being 
Saved was a Green buffalow Skin was thrown over him by his 
mother who perhaps had more fore Sight for the pertection of 
her Son, and [l]ess for herself than those who escaped the 
flame, the Fire did not burn under the Skin leaveing the 
grass round the bov- This fire passed our Camp last [night] 
about 8 oClock P.M. it went with great rapitidity and looked 
Tremendious . 

1 I saw [i8o6] the remains of an excellent large corn mill, which the foolish 
fellows had demolished to barb their arrows ; the largest piece of it, which they could 
not break or work up into any weapon, was fixed to a wooden handle, and used to 
pound marrow-bones to make grease. — Henry {Journal, Coues ed., i, p. 329). 



The following Chiefs were made in Council to day 

Ala-too-ton-ha or Lower Village of the Mandans 

I" Chief Sha-ha-ka— or Big White 1 

2 do Ka-goh-ha-mi. or Little Raven 

Roop-tar-hee or Second Village of the Mandans. 

I" and Grand Chief, Pose-cop-sa-he. or black cat 
1"^ Chief Car-gar-no- mok-she raven man Cheaf 

Mah-har-ha 3'^ Village 
i" Cheaf Ta-tucli-co-pin-re-ha white Buffalow robe unfolded 

Me-ne-tar-re Me-te-har-tan 

I" Cheif — Omp-se-ha-ra. Black Mockerson 
2 do. Oh-harh or Little fox 

We Sent the presents intended for the Grand Chief of the 
Mi-ne-tar-re or Big Belley, and the presents flag and Wompom 
by the old Chief and those intended for the Chief of the Lower 
Village by a young Chief 

The following Chiefs were recommended in addition to 
those viz. — 

I*' Village 

Oh-hee-nar Big Man a Chien (<? Chayenne prisoner adopted by them') 
Sho-ta-har-ro-ra ^ [or Coal — Biddle] 

2*! Village 
Taw-nuh-e-o Bel-lar-sara 
Ar-rat-tana-mock-ihe — Wolf man Chief 

3':" Village 

Min-nis-sur-ra-ree — Neighing horse 
Lo-Cong-gar-ti-har — old woman at a distance 

1 Brackenridge, who saw this chief in 1811, thus describes him {Louisiana, 
p. 261) : " She-he-ke is a fat man, not much distinguished as a warrior, and extremely 
talkative, a fault much despised amongst the Indians." — Eo. 

^ Biddle does not include this chief in his list. — Ed. 

[ 212 ] 


Vi- Village 

Mar-noh-tah . the big Stcclcr out at war (who was then out at war & 

IV as kilUd <•//'.') 
Mar-se-rus-se — tale of Callumet bird 
Ea pa no pa — Two taled Calumet bird young Chief 
ITar kc ras sa The red Shield young Chief of Big belley — big town 

S'*" Village 

Sha-hakh ho pin nee — Little Wolfs Medisoii 

Ar-rat-to'e-no-mook-ge — man wolf Chief {at war) 

Cal-tar-co ta — cherry (grows {growing) on a bush) old Chief and 
father to the above menf? chief 

Maii-piih' -pir-re-cos-sa too — This chief is near this hunting and a 
verry considerable man ' 

To the i" Chiefs we gave a Medal with the Imp" of the President 
of the U. S. 

To the 2^ Chiefs a Medel of weaveing & Domestic animals. 

To the 3'^ Chiefs a Medel with the impression of a man Sowing 

30"! October Tuesday 1804 — 

Two chiefs came to have Some talk one the princapal of the 
lower Village the other the one who thought himself the prin- 
cipal man, & requested to hear Some of the Speech that was 
Delivered yesterday they were gratified, and we put the medal 
on the neck of the Big white to whome we had Sent Clothes 
yesterday & a flag, those men did not return from hunting 
in time to join the Councell, they were well pleased (2? of 
those is a Chien) I took 8 men in a Small perogue and went 
up the river as fur as the i" Island about 7 miles to see if a 
Situation could be got on it for our Winter quarters, found 
the wood on the Is^ as also on the p! above so Distant from 
the water that, I did not think that we could get a good 
wintering ground there, and as all the white men here informed 
us that wood was scerce, as well as game above, we Deturmined 
to drop down a fiew miles near wood and game 

' Biddle does not include this chief in his list. — Ed. 


Course to the Island 

N. I 2° W. 3 M! to a Bluft" 30 feet high above the point of wood. S.S. 
N. 20° W 2 M'' to a tree under the bank about 20 feet high S. S. 

butifuU plain 
N. 30° W. I.I Mis. to a p' of the Same BlufF30 feet high under which 

there was coal S. S. 
N. 45° W. I i/^ M'.' to the Lower point of an Island Current on the 
~j L. S. this Is*! ab; i mile long. 

on my return found maney Ind' at our Camp, gave the 
party a dram, they Danced as is verry Com" in the evening 
which pleased the Savages much. Wind S. E. 

3i^f of October Wednesday 1S04 — 

a fine morning, the Chief of the Mandans Sent a 2? Chief 
to invite us to his Lodge to receive Som corn & here what he 
had to say I walked down, and with great ceremoney was 
Seeted on a roabe by the Side of the Chief, he threw a 
handsom Roabe over me and after smokeing the pipe with 
Several old men around, the Chief spoke 

Said he believed what we had told them, and that peace 
would be general, which not only gave him Satisfaction but 
all his people, they now could hunt without fear, & ther 
womin could work in the fields without looking everry moment 
for the enemey, and put off their mockersons at night, (sign of 
peace undress) as to the Ri\c~\ares we will Show you that we 
wish peace with all, and do not make War on any without 
cause, that Chief — pointing to the 2? and Some brave men 
will accomp! the ricare Chief now with you to his village & 
nation, to Smoke with that people, when you came up the 
Indians in the neighbouring Villages, as well as those out 
hunting when they heard of you had great expectations of 
receving presents those hunting imediately on hearing re- 
turned to the Village and all was Disapointed, and Some Dis- 
satisfied, as to himself he was not much So but his village 
was. he would go and see his great father &c. &c. 

he had put before me 2 of the Steel traps which was robed 
from the french a Short time ago, [and] alaout 12 bushels of 


Corn which was brought and put before me by the womin of 
the Village after the Chief finish' &c Smoked in great cer- 
rimony, I answered the Speech which Satisfied them verry 
much, and returned to the boat, met the princapal Chief of 
the 3!" Village and the Little Crow both of which 1 invited 
into the Cabin and Smoked & talked with for about one hour. 
Soon after those Chiefs left us, the Grand Chief of the 
Mandans came Dressed in the Clothes we had given with his 
2 small Suns, and requested to See the men Dance which they 
verry readily gratified him in, the wind blew hard all the after 
part of the day from the N. K. and continud all night to blow 
hard from that point, in the morning it Shifted NW. Capt 
Lewis wrote to the N. W. Companys agent on the Orsiniboine 
River {fori i^c. there about /50 miles hence) ab! 9 Days march 
North of this place 

\'' of No'vember. Thursday 1804 — 

the Wind hard from the NW. M[ Mf Crackin a Trader 
Set out at 7 oClock to the Fort on the Ossiniboin bv him 
Send a letter, (inclosing a Copy of the British Ministers pro- 
tection) to the principal agent of the Company.' at about lo 
oClock the Chiefs of the Lower Village came and after a Short 
time informed us they wished they would us to [/. e., that we 
would — Ed.] call at their Village & take Some corn, [They 
said] that thev would make peace with the Ricares they never 
made war against them but after the Rees killed their Chiefs 
they killed them like the birds, and were tired {of killing them) 
and would Send a Chief and Some brave men to the Ricares 
to Smoke with that people, in the evening we Set out and 
fell down to the lower Village where Cap' Lewis got out and 
continud at the village untill after night I proceeded on & 
landed on the S. S. at the upper point ot the i" Timber on the 
Starboard Side after landing & continuing all night droped 

' Coues reprints (i, pp. tSy, 1S8) this letter, which he found in Riddle's literary 
magazine, The Parlfotio (Philadelphia), vol. vii (1S12), pp. 448, 449. The agent's 
name >vas Charles Chaboillez, representing the North West Company ; Lewis and 
Clark wrote to liim explaining the nature of their mission, and enclosing a copy of the 
passport granted them by Mr. Edward Thornton, of the British legation at 
ington. — Ed. 



down to a proper place to build Cap! Lewis Came down after 
night, and informed me he intended to return the next 
morning by the perticular request of the Chiefs. 

We passed the Villages on our Decent in View of Great 
numbers of the inhabitents 

-i'"! No=vemher Friday i S04 — 

This Morning at Daylight I went down the river with 4 men 
to look for a proper place to winter proceeded down the 
river three miles & found a place well Supl.'' with wood, & 
returned, Cap! Lewis went to the Village to here what they 
had to Say & I fell down, and formed a Camp, near where a 
Small Camp of Indians were hunting cut down the Trees 
around our Camp, in the evening Cap! Lewis returned with 
a present of 1 1 bushels of Corn, our ricaree Chief Set out 
accompanied by one Chief (0/" Mandans) and Several Brave 
men {of Minitarees and Mandans), he called for Some small 
article which we had given {promised) but as I could not 
understand him he could not get [it] (af'' he did get it) the 
wind from the S. E. a fine day maney Indians to view us to 

37,' of No'Vember Satterday 1 804 — 

a fine morning wind hard from the West we commence 
building our Cabins,' Send down in a perogue 6 men to hunt 
engaged one man [a Canadian Frenchman who had been with 
the Chayenne Ind'. on the Cote noir i£ last summer descended thence 
the Little Missouri — he was of our permanent^"' Set the french 
who intend to return to build a perogue, many Indians pass 
to hunt, M! Jessomme {Jesseaume) with his Squar & chil- 
dren come down to live, as Interpter, we receved {hired) a 
hors for our Service, in the evening the Ka goh ha me or 
little ravin came & brought us on his Squar {who carried it on 
of Meal &c. they Delayed all night we gave his Squar \_an 
her back) about 60 W! of Dried BufFalow meat a roabe, & Pot 

1 A description of the manner in which the huts and fort were built is given by 
Gass (pp. 85, 86). — Ed. 

■■^ This was Baptiste Le Page, enlisted to take the place of John Newman, dis- 
charged. — Eu. 



ax i£'\ a fiew Small articles & himself a piece of Tobacco, the 
men were indulged with a Dram, this evening two Beaver 
Cought this morning, and one Trap Lost 
(T'he Frenchmen g engaged thus far now returning — but 2 or j 
volunteered to remain with us the winter which they did, iff in the 
Spring left us.) 

+ "!' Novemher Sunjay 180+ — 

a fine nioriiiiig we continud to cut Down trees and raise 
our houses, a NT Chauhonie {Chaboncau), interpeter for the 
Gross Ventre nation Came to See us, and informed that the 
came Down with Several Indians from a hunting expidition 
up the river, to here \^/iear'\ what we had told the Indians in 
Council this man wished to hire as an interpiter, the wind 
rose this evening trom the East & clouded up. Great numbers 
ot Indians pass hunting and Some on the Return 

5 Noi'ember Monday i 804 — 

I rose verry early and commenced raising the i range of 
Huts' the timber large and heavy all to carry on on Hand 
Sticks, cotton wood & Elm Som ash Small, our Situation 
Sandy, great numbers of Indians pass to and from hunting 
a camp of Mandans, A fiew miles below us Cought within two 
days 100 Goats, by Driveing them in a Strong pen, derected 
by a Bush fence widening from the pen &c. &c. the Greater 
part of this day Cloudy, wind moderate from the N. W. I 
have the Rhumitism verry bad, Cap Lewis writeing all Day 
we are told by our interpeter that 4 Ossiniboins Indians, have 
arrived at the Camps of the Gross Venters, & 50 Lodges are 

1 Fort Mandan, the wintering-place of the expedition, was located on the left bank 
of the Missouri, seven or eight miles below the mouth of Knife River ; it was nearly 
opposite the site of the later Fort Clark. The latter post, " one of the most impor- 
tant on the river," was on the right bank ; Chittenden says {Amer. Fur Trade, p. 
957) that its area was 132 Y 147 feet. On its site a fortified trading post was built 
in 1822 ; the later structure, which was named Fort Clark, was erected in 1831, as 
a post of the American Fur Company. See description and history of this locality, in 
Prince Maximilian's Voyage (Paris, 1841), ii, pp. 331-344. 

' Drew M[ Gravelens instructions & discharged 2 french hands. — Clark (memo- 
randum on p. 222 of Codex C). 

[ 217 ] 


6'* November TuejJay 1804 Fort ManJan — 

last night late we wer awoke by the Sergeant of the Guard 
to See a Nothern light, which was light, [but) not red, and ap- 
peared to Darken and Some times nearly obscured, and open, 
{divided about 20 degrees above horizon — various shapes — con- 
siderable space) many times appeared in light Streeks, and at 
other times a great Space light & containing floating collomns 
which appeared to approach each other & retreat leaveing the 
lighter space at no time of the Same appearance 

This Morning I rose a[t] Day light the Clouds to the 
North appeared black at 8 oClock the [wind] began to blow 
hard from the N. W. and Cold, and Continued all Day M' 
Jo Gravelin our ricare interpeter Paul premor, Laguness, [Lajeu- 
nesse] & 2 french Boys, who Came with us. Set out in a Small 
perogue, on their return to the recare nation & the Illinois, 
M; Gravelin has instructions to take on the recares in the 
Spring &c. Continue to build the huts, out of Cotton Timber, 
&c. this being the only timber we have, 

■j"' Noitemher Wednesday 1804 — 

a termperate day we continued to building our hut, cloudy 
and foggey all day 

%'\\ No--v. Thursday 1804 — 

a cloudy morning Jussome our {Mandan) inturpeter went 
to the Village, on his return he informed us that three Eng- 
lish men had arrived from the Hudson Bay Company, and 
would be here tomorrow, we conf" to build our huts, many 
Indians come to See us and bring their horses to Grass near 

9"; No-v. Friday 1S04 — 

a verry hard frost this morning we continue to build our 
Cabens, under many Disadvantages, Day cloudy wind from 
the NW. Several Indians pass with flying news {reports), we 
got a white weasel, (Taile excepted which was black at the end) 
of an Indian Cap'. Lewis walked to the hill ab' ^ of a mile, 
we are Situated in a point of the Missouri North Side in a 
Cotton wood Timber, this Timber is tall and heavy containing 


an imence quantity of water Britle (brittle) & Soft fine food 
for Horses to winter (as is Said by the Indians) The Mandans 
Oraze the.r horses in the Day on Grass, and at night give them 
a Stick (an arm full) of Cotton wood [boughs] to eate, Horses 
Dogs & people all pass the night in the Same Lodge or round 
House, CoV with earth with a fire in the middle ' great num- 
ber of wild gees pass to the South, flew verry high. 

lo"' No-vember Satturday 1804 

rose early continued to build our fort numbers of Indians 
came to See us a Chief Half Pania came & brought a Side 
of a Bufl^alow, in return We Gave Some fiew small things to 
himself & wife & Son, he crossed the river in the Buffalow 
Skin Canoo & and, the Squar took the Boat {on her back) and 
proceeded on to the Town j miles the Day raw and cold 
wnuHrom the NW., the Gees Continue to pass in gangues as 
also brant to the South, Some Ducks also pass 

11'* No-vemher Sunday 1804. Fort Mandan 

a cold Day continued at work at the Fort Two men cut 
themselves with an ax, The large Ducks pass to the South 
an Indian gave me several roles of parched meat two Squars 
of the Rock mountains, purchased from the Indians by a 
frenchmen {Chaboneau) came down The Mandans out hunt- 
ing the Bufl^alow 

\-i.'i[ No'vember Monday 1804 — 

a verry Cold night early this morning the Big White prin- 
capal Chief of the lower Village of the Mandans came Down 
he pack^ about loo'? of fine meet on his squar for us, we 
made Some Small presents to the Squar, &c child gave a Small 
ax [with] which She was much pleased 3 men Sick with the 

1 These earth lodges of the Mandan differentiated then, from the other Indians of 
the plains, and are described by all early travellers. See Maximilian, Prince of Weid's 
f^oyage .nt/.e nurior of Sor,/, America (Lor^^on, ,843); Catlin's AVM An.erican 
Ind.ans (London, ,84.) ; and Washington Matthews's "Earth Lodge in Art - in 
An.eruan Anthropologu,, .90., pp. .-xz. This lodge is the prototype of the set'tler's 
sod-house, bu, ,s seldon, used now by the Mandan. For their present condition see 
vv Heeler s U^ondertand, 1903, pp. 19-36. Ed. 



[blank in MS.], Several, Wind Changeable verry cold even- 
ing, freesing all day some ice on the edges of the river. 

Swans passing to the South, the Hunters we Sent down 
the river to hunt has not returned 

" The interpeter says that the Mandan nation as they (old 
men) Say came out of a Small lake {subterraneous Village ifX a 
lake) where they had Gardins, maney years ago they lived in 
Several Villages on the Missourie low down,' the Small pox 
destroyed the greater part of the nation and reduced them to 
one large village and Some Small ones, all the nations before 
this maladey was affr'^ (afraid) of them, after they were re- 
duced the Seaux and other Indians waged war, and killed a 
great maney, and they moved up the Missourie, those Indians 
Still continued to wage war, and they moved Still higher, until 
got in the Countrey of the Panias, whith this N'" they lived in 
friendship maney years, inhabiting the Same neighbourhood 
untill that people waged war, they moved up near the PVater- 
soons & Winataras where they now live in peace with those 
nations, the Mandans Speake a language peculial to them- 
selves verry much [blank in MS.] they can rase about 350 
men the Winataries about 80 (the Wittassoons or Maharha 80) 
and the Big bellies [or Minitarees) about 600 or 650 men. the 
Mandans and Seaux have the Same word for water. The Big 
bellies or Winetaries & ravin [Wattassoon as also the Crow or 
Raven) Indians Speake nearly the Same language and the pre- 
sumption is they were origionally the Same nation The Ravin 
Indians "have 400 Lodges & about 1200 men, & follow the 
Buffalow, or hunt for their Subsistance in the plains & on the 
Court Noi & Rock Mountains, & are at war with the Siaux 
[and] Snake Indians 

The Big bellies & Watersoons are at war with the Snake 
Indians & Seauex and were at war with the Ricares untill we 
made peace a fiew days pass^ The Mandans are at war with 
all who make war \on them, at present with the Seauex\ only, 
and wish to be at peace with all nations. Seldom the ogressors 

1 See Maximilian's detailed account of the Mandan myths of the creation, their 
tribal origin, and their migrations, with their religious beliefs, superstitions, and cus- 
toms, in his Voyage, ii, pp. 369-484. — Ed. 

[ 220 ] 






I 3f* No-v. Tuesday 1804 — 

The Ice began to run in the river yi past lo oClock P.M. 
we rose early & onloaded the boat before brackfast except, the 
Cabin, 6c stored away in a Store house at lo oClock A.M. 
the Black Cat the Mandin Chief and Lagree {Fr. name) Che 
Chank a Chiefs 7 men of note visited us at Fort Mandan, I 
gave him a twist of Tobacco to Smoke with his people & a 
Gold Cord, with a view to know him again, This nation con- 
sists {T'his chief was one of j bands of Ass"' who rove between the 
Missouri ^ Ass" river. The j consist) of about 600 men, hunt 
in the Plains & winter and trade on the Ossiniboin River, 
[here describe all Ass"') they are the Decendants of the Seaux 
and Speake their language, they come to the nations in this 
quarter to trade or (make preasents) for horses' the Method 
of this Kind of Trafick by addoption Shall be explained here- 
after etc., Snow'd all day, the Ice ran thick and air Cold. 

14'* of No'vember IVednesday 1804. Fort Mandan — 

a cloudy morning, ice runing verry thick, river rose 1/ 
Inch last night Some snow falling, only two Indians visit 
us to day owing to a Dance at the Village last night in Con- 

' La Verendrye, who visited the Mandan in 1738, thus speaks of their relations 
with their northern neighbors : "The Assiliboille [Assiniboin], although numerous, 
and strong and robust men, arc not brave ; they are in great fear of the Sioux, whom 
they regard as braver. The Mantannes [Mandan] know their weakness, and profit 
by [it] on occasion. . . . Public notice was given throughout the village, warning 
every one to be ready to march on the second day after, the 30th of the month ; this 
made some further delay among the Mantannes, who knew well how to profit thereby 
in trading their grain, tobacco, peltries, and painted feathers, which they know the 
Assiliboille highly value. The latter had brought, and were now giving in exchange, 
muskets, axes, kettles, powder, bullets, knives, and bodkins. The Mantannes are 
far more crafty in trade, and in all other relations, than are the Assiliboille, who are 
constantly duped by them. . . . The Assiliboille had purchased everything which 
their means permitted, such as painted buffalo-robes ; skins of deer and antelope well 
dressed, and ornamented with fur ; bunches of painted feathers ; peltries ; wrought 
garters, headdresses, and girdles. These people [the Mandan] dress leather better 
than do any other tribes, and do very fine work on furs and feathers, which the Assili- 
boille are not capable of doing. They are cunning traders, despoiling the Assiliboille 
of all that they may possess." — See his "Journal," in Canad, Archi-Tjes Rep., 1889, 
p. 14. — Ed. 

[221 ] 


eluding a serimoney of adoption,^ and interchange of property, 
between the Ossinboins, Christinoes [Knistenaux)" and the 
nations of this neighbourhood, we Sent one man by land on 
horseback to know the reason of the Delay of our hunters, 
this evening 1 frenchmen who were tr aping below Came up 
with 20 beaver, we are compelled to use our Pork which we 
doe Spearingly for fear of some falur in precureing a Sufficiency 
from the woods. 

our Interpeter informs that 70 Lodges one of 3 bands of 
Assinniboins & Some Crestinoes, are at the Mandan Village. 
The Crestinoes are ab! 300 {_2^6) men Speak the Chipaway 
Language, the[y] live near Fort De prari {on Assimboin ii 
Assaskashawan [Saskatchewan — Ed.] they are bands of the 

1^"' of No-vemher Thunday 1S04 — 

a cloudy morning, the ice run much thicker than yesterday, 
at 10 oClock G Drewyer^ & the frenchman we Dispatched 
yesterday came up from the Hunters, who is incamped about 
30 miles below, after about one hour we Dispatched a man 
with orders to the hunters to proceed on without Delay thro 
the floating ice, we sent by the man Tin, to put on the parts 
of the Perogue exposed to the ice & a toe roape. The wind 
Changeable all hands work at their huts untill i oClock at 
night. Swans passing to the South — but fiew fowls (water) to 
be Seen not one Indian came to our fort to day 

1 The ceremony of adoption into a tribe or family is one which has always pre- 
vailed among the North American aborigines, and is extended to any persons (red or 
white) to whom they wish to show special friendship or honor. See Henry's descrip- 
tion of the ceremony (Journal, i, pp. 38S— 390). — Ed. 

- The savages now known as Cree, the appellation of various nomadic tribes who 
range the region north of Lake Superior and west toward the Assiniboin River ; they 
are of Algonquian stock. — Ed. 

' George Drouillard (Drewyer) was son of Pierre Drouillard, an interpreter for the 
British at Detroit in the latter part of the eighteenth century. The father is said to 
have rescued Simon Kenton from death at the stake (about 1779). George was slain 
(May, 1810) in a fight with the Blackfeet. — Ed. 

[ 222 ] 


\6['; No'vember Friday 1804 

a verry white frost all the trees all covered with ice, cloudy, 
all the men move into the huts which is not finish^ Several 
Indians come to camp to day, The Ossimboms is at the Big 
beliie Camp, some trouble like to take place between them 
from the loss of horses &c. as is Said by an old Indian who 
visited us with 4 Buffaiow robes & corn to trade for a Pistol 
which we did not let him have, men imployd untill late in 
dohing their huts, Some horses Sent down to Stay in the 
woods near the tort, to prevent the Ossniboins Steeling them 

17','' Nofemher Satturday 1804 

a fine morning, last night was Cold, the ice thicker than 
yesterday, Several Indians visit us, one Chief Stayed all day 
we are much engaged about our huts. 

18^* No'v. Sunday 1804 — 

a cold morning Some wind the Black Cat, Chief of the 
Mandans came to see us, he made great inquiries respecting 
our fashions, he also Stated the Situation of their nation 
he mentioned that a Council had been held the day before 
and It was thought advisable to put up with the resent insults 
of the Ossimboins & Christinoes untill they were convinced 
that what had been told them by us [was true — Ed.], 
M: Evins had deceived them & we might also, he promised 
to return & furnish them with guns & amunition, we advised 
them to remain at peace & that they might depend upon 
Getting Supplies through the Channel of the Missourie but 
It required time to put the trade in opperation. The Ossini- 
boins &c. have the trade of those nations in their power and 
treat them badly, as the Soux does the Ricarees: and they can- 
not resent,for fear of loseing their trade. 

' That is, "daubing" with clay Ed. 

= Biddleadds: "By their vicinity to the British [a, Hudson Bay] .hev get all the 
supphes, they w.thhold or give at pleasure ,0 the remoter Indians.-' - Ed. 
[-2-23 ] 


1 9'* N01: Monday — 

a Cold day the ice continue to run our Perogue of Hunters 
arrive with 32 Deer, 12 Elk & a Buffalow, all of this meat 
we had hung up in a Smoke house, a timeley supply. Several 
Indians here all day. the wind blew hard from the N.W. by 
W, our men move into their huts, Several little Indian 
aneckd" [anecdotes] told me to day 

20':' November Tuesday 1804 — 

Cap Lewis & my Self move into our hut,^ a verry hard 
wind from the W. all the after part of the day a temperate 
day Several Indians came Down to Eat fresh meat, three 
Chiefs from the 2*1 Mandan Village Stay all Day, they are 
verry Curious in examining our works. Those Chiefs informs 
us that the Souex settled on the Missourie above Dog (Chay- 
enne) River, threten to attacked them this winter, and have 
treated 2 Ricares who carried the pipe of peace to them verry 
roughly, whiped & took their horses from them &c. &c. & is 
much displeased with the Ricares for makeing a peace with the 
Mandans &c. &c. through us, we gave them a Sattisfactory 
answer. &c. &c. 

iz]', No'V. Wednesday — 

a fine Day despatched a perogue and collected stone for 
our Chimneys, Some wind from the S.W. arrange our 
different articles. Maney Indians visit us to day, G D hurd 
his hand verry bad all the party in high Spirits. The river 
Clear of ice, & riseing a little.' 

1 Biddle here describes (i, pp. 128, 129) the fort, much as Gass does. — Ed. 

2 At this point Biddle describes (i, pp. 129-132) the location, history, and mutual 
relations of the tribes about Fort Mandan. There are five villages, " the residence 
of three distinct nations : the Mandans, the Ahnahaways, and the Minnetarees." 
The Mandan may number about 350 warriors. The Ahnahaway ("people whose 
village is on a hill ") live at the mouth of Knife River, in a village called Mahaha ; 
" they are called by the French, Soulier Noir or Shoe Indians, by the Mandans 
Wattasoons ; and their whole force is about fifty men." Half a mile above Mahaha 
on the Knife River is a village of the Minitaree surnamed Metaharta (" of the 
willows"), numbering 150 warriors ; and farther up that stream is another, of the 
Minitaree proper, who have 450 men. " These Minnetarees are part of the great 



zz",'! of No'vember Thursday 1804 — 

a fine inoniing Dispatched a perogue and 5 men under the 
Derection of Sergeant Pryor to the 2".'' Village for 100 bushels 
of Corn in ears which M' Jcssomme, let us have \ciid not get 
more than jo bushels^ I was allarmed about 10 oClock by 
the Sentinal, who informed that an Indian was about to kill 
his wife in the interpeters fire about 60 yards below the works, 
I went down and Spoke to the fellow about the rash act which 
he was like to commit and forbid any act of the kind near the 
fort. Some misunderstanding took place between this man iSc 
his fife [wife] about 8 days ago, and she came to this place, 
& continued with the Squars of the interpeters, {he might law- 
fully have killed her for running away) 2 days ago She re- 
turned to the vill'ge. in the evening of the Same day She 
came to the interpeters fire appearently much beat, & Stabed 
in 3 places. We Derected that no man of this party have 
any intercourse with this woman under the penalty of Punish- 
ment, he the Husband observed that one of our Serjeants 
Slept with his wife & if he wanted her he would give her to 
him, We derected the Serjeant (Odway) to give the man 
Some articles, at which time I told the Indian that I believed 
not one man of the party had touched his wite except the one 
he had given the use of her for a nite, in his own bed, no 
man of the party Should touch his squar, or the wife of any 
Indian, nor did I believe they touch a woman if they knew 
her to be the wife of another man, and advised him to take his 
squar home and live hapily together in future, at this time 
the Grand Chief of the nation arrived, & lectured him, and 
thev both went off apparently dis {dissatisfied) 

nation called Fall Indians, who occupy the intermediate country between the Mis- 
souri and the Saskaslcawan. The name of Grosventres, or Bigbellies, is given to 
these Minnetarees, as well as to all the Fall Indians." Mooney says (6'. 5. Bur. 
Elhnol. Rep., 1892-93, p. 955) that Grosventres signifies "belly-people" (i. e., 
grasping and setfish, " spongers ") ; that the Arapaho division of that name are the 
" Gros Ventres of the Prairie" ; while the Hidatsa or Minitaree with whom Lewis 
and Clark wintered, are sometimes called "Gros Ventres of the Missouri." See 
McGee's interpretation of the term Grosventres («/ supra, 1893-94, p. 197). 
Valuable information regarding all these tribes is given by Washington Matthews, in 
his Ethnography and Philology of the Hidatsa Indians. — Ed. 
VOL. I.- 15 [225] 


The Grand Chief continued {with us) all day, a warm Day 
fair afternoon many Indian aneckdotes our Chief & his family 
stay all night. 

a fair warm Day, wind from the S.E. Send after Stone 
several men with bad colds, one man Shields with the Rhumi- 
tism the river on a Stand haveing rose 4 inches in all. 

24'" of Nofemher Satturday 1804 — 

a warm Day Several men with bad colds we continued to 
cover our Huts with hewed Punchins,' finish'! a Cord to 
draw our boat out on the bank, this is made of 9 strans of Elk 
Skin, the wind from the S.E. 

25'f of No-Tj. Sunday 1804 — 

a fine day warm & pleasent Cap' Lewis i Interpeters & 
6 men Set out to see the Indians in the different Towns & 
camps in this neighbourhood, we Continu to cover & dob 
our huts, two Chiefs came to See me to day one named 
Wau-ke-res-sa-ra, a Big belley, and the first of that Nation 
who has Visited us Since we have been here, I gave him a 
handkerchef Paint & a lace band, and the other Some fiew 
articles, and paid a perticular attention which pleased them 
verry much, the inturpeters being all with Cap! Lewis I 
could not talk to them. We Compleated our huts. Several 
men with bad Colds, river falls 1% inch 

[Memorandum on p. 221 of this Codex:] Capt. Lewis with 
Chabono & Jessomme set out to visit the Indian hunting 
camps, Spent the evening with the black mockerson, the 
principal Chief ot the little village of Big billies. 

i6','l of Nov. 1S04 Monday Fort Mandan — 

a little before day light the wind shifted to the N.W. and 
blew hard and the air keen & cold all day. Cloudy and much 
the appearance of Snow ; but little work done to day it being 
cold &c. 

' The "puncheons" used in pioneer architecture were simply logs hewn on one 
side, so as to form a tolerably level surface for floor or ceiling. — Ed. 



[Memorandum, p. 220:] Visited the upper camps of the 
big bellies and returned to the lower Camp & passed a second 

^y'll of November Tuesday 180+ — 

a cloudy morning after a verry cold night, the River 
crouded with floating ice Wind from the NW. finished 
Dobing Cap' Lewis returned from the Villages with two 
Chiefs Mar-noh-toh i£ Man-ness-sur ree & a considerate [con- 
siderable] man with the party who accompanied him. The 
Menetaries, (or Big bellies) were allarmed at the tales told 
them by the Mandans viz : that we intended to join the Seaux 
to Cut off them in the Course of the Winter, many Circum- 
stances Combin'd to give force to those reports i. e. the move- 
ments of the interpeters & their families to the Fort, the 
strength of our work &c. &c. all those reports was contre- 
dicted by Cap! Lewis with a conviction on the minds of the 
Indians of the falsity of those reports, the Indians in all the 
towns & Camps treated Cap'. Lewis & the party with Great 
respect, except one of the principal Chiefs Mar-par-pa-parra- 
pas-a-too or (Horned Weasel) who did not chuse to be Seen 
by the Cap' & left word that he was not at home &c. Seven 
Traders arrived from the fort on the Ossinoboin from the 
NW. Company one of which Lafrance took, upon himself to 
speak unfavourably of our intentions &c. the principal M^ 
La Rock (& M.' M' Kensey) was informed of the Conduct of 
their interpeter & the Consequences if thev did not put a Stop 
to unfavourable & ill founded assursions &c. &c.' 

' The names of these traders were : Francois Antoine Larocque (in charge of this 
trading expedition), Charles McKenzie, Baptiste Lafrance, and four voyageurs. 
The journals of both Larocque and McKenzie have been published by L. R. Masson, 
in his Bourgeois Je la Compagnie du Nord-OuesI (Quebec, 1889), i, pp. 299-393 > 
they mention their relations with Lewis and Clark, near whom they remained during 
that winter. Larocque describes the objects and policy of the Americans, and says : 
" During the time I was there a very grand plan was .schemed, but its being realized 
is more than I can tell, although the Captains say they are well assured it will. . . . 
The flirt is made so strong as to be almost cannon-ball proof. . . . They have a 
very expert smith who is always employed making different things, and working for 
the Indians, who are grown very fond of them, although they disliked them at first." 
But McKenzie says : " The Indians accepted of clothing, but, notwithstanding, they 
could not be reconciled to like these 'strangers,' as they called them." — Ed. 



The two Chiefs much pleased with ther treatment & the 
Cherefuliness of the party, who Danced to amuse them &c. &c. 

The river fall 2 Inches verry Cold and began to Snow at 
8 oClock PM and continued all night. Some miss under- 
standing with Jussomme^ &c his woman at Day the Snow 

iS'f Noi\ H'^ednesday 1804 — 

a cold morning wind from the N.W. river full of floating 
ice, began to Snow at 7 oClock a m and continued all day. 
at 8 oClock the Poss-coss-so-he or Black Cat Grand Chief ot 
the Mandans Came to See us, after Showing those Chiefs 
many thing[s] which was Curiossities to them, and Giveing a 
fiew presents of Curious Handkerchiefs arm ban[d]s & paint 
with a twist of Tobacco they departed at i oClock much 
pleased, at parting we had Some little talk on the Subject of 
the British Trader M. Le rock Giveing meadels & Flags, and 
told those Chiefs to impress it on the minds of their nations 
that those simbiles were not to be receved by any from them, 
without they wished [to] incur the displeasure of their Great 
American Father, a verry disagreeable day no work done to 
day river fall i Inch to day 

19'''; November Thursday 1804 — 

A verry cold windey day wind from the N.W. by W. 
Some snow last night the detph of the Snow is various in the 
wood about 13 inches. The river Closed at the Village above 
and fell last night two feet, M'! La Rock and one of his men 
Came to visit us, we informed him what we had herd of his 
intentions of makeing Chiefs &c. and forbid him to give 
Meadels or flags to the Indians, he Denied haveing any 
Such intention, we agreed that one of our interpeters Should 

1 Alexander Henry thus characterizes Jusseaume {Journal, Coues ed., N. Y. , 
1897, i, p. 401) ; " that old sneaking cheat, whose character is more despicable than 
the worst among the natives." — Ed. 

[ 228 ] 

'«°4] AT l<()Kr MAN DAN 

Speak for him on Conditions he did not say any thing more 
than what tended to trade alone, he gave fair promises &c.' 

Sergeant Pryor in takeing down the mast put his Sholder 
out of Place, we made four trials before we replaced it a cold 
afternoon wind as useal N W. river begin to rise a little. 

30'* of So-vemher Fr'uiay 180+ 

This morning at 8 oClock an Indian called from the other 
Side and informed that he had Something of Consequence to 
Comnuinicate, we Sent a perogue for him & he informed us 
as follows. Viz: " five men of the Mandan nation out hunt- 
ing in a S.W. derection about Eight Leagues, was Suprised by 
a large party of Seeoux ik Panies, one man was Killed and two 
wounded with arrows &c 9 Horses taken, 4 of the We ter 
soon nation was missing, and they expected to be attacked by 
the Souex &c. &c. we thought it well to Show a Disposition 
to ade and assist them against their enemies, perticularly those 
who Came in oppersition to our Councels ; and 1 Deturmined 
to go to the town with Some men, and if the Seeoux were 
comeing to attact the Nation to Collect the worriers from each 
Village and meet them, those Ideas were also those of Cap' 
Lewis, I crossed the river in about an hour after the arrival 
of the Indian express with 23 men including the interpeters 
and flank'' the Town & came up on the back part. The 
Indians not expecting to receive Such Strong aide in So Short 
a time was much supprised, and a littled allarmed at the 
formadable appearence of my party. The principal Chiefs 
met me Some Distance from the town (say 200 yards) and 
invited me in to town. I ordfered] my p"' into dif lodges 

1 Larocqiie gives the same account {Masaons Bourg. Noni-Oiieil, 1, p. 304), and 
adds : <' As I had ncitlicr flags nor medals, I ran no risk of disobeying those orders, 
of which I assured them." The interpreter lent to the British was Charboncau. 
McKenzie thus describes («/ supra, p. 336) the method of Lewis and Clark's com- 
munications with the Indians : " A mulatto, who spoke bad French and worse Eng- 
lish, served as interpreter to the Captains, so that a single word to be understood by 
the party required to pass from the Natives to the xvoman [Sacajawea, Indian wife of 
Charboneau, who could not speak English], from the woman to tiie husband, from 

the husband to the mulatto, from the mulatto to the captains." Eu. 

[ 229 ] 


&c. I explained to the nation the cause of my comeing in 
this formadable manner to their Town, was to assist and Chas- 
tise the enemies of our Dutifull Children, I requested the 
Grand Cheif to repeat the Circumstancies as they hapined, 
which he did as was mentioned by the express in the morning. 
I then informed them that if they would assemble their war- 
rers and those of the Different Towns, I would [go] to meet 
the Army of Souex &c. chastise them for takeing the blood of 
our dutifull Children &c. after a conversation of a fiew minits 
amongst themselves, one Chief the Big Man (Cien) {a Chay- 
enne). Said they now Saw that what we hade told them was the 
trooth, when we expected the enemies of their Nation was 
Comeing to attact them, or had Spilt their blood [we] were 
ready to protect them, and kill those who would not listen to 
our Good talk, his people had listened to what we had told 
them and cearlessly went out to hunt in Small parties believ- 
ing themselves to be Safe from the other nations, and have 
been killed by the Parties & Seauex, " I knew Said he that 
the Panies were Hers, and told the old Chief who Came with 
you (to Confirm a piece with us) that his people were Hers and 
bad men and that we killed them like the Buffalow, when we 
pleased, we had made peace several times and you Nation 
have always commenced the war, we do not want to kill you, 
and will not Suffer you to kill us or Steal our horses, we 
will make peace with you as our two fathers have derected, 
and they Shall See that we will not be the Ogressors, but we 
fear the Ricares will not be at peace long. " My father those 
are the words I spoke to the Ricare in your presents, you 
See they have not opened their ears to your good Councels 
but have Spuilt our blood." two Ricaries whom we sent 
home this day for fear of our peoples killing them in their 
greaf, informed us when they came here Several days ago, that 
two Towns of the Ricares were makeing their Mockersons, 
and that we had best take care of our horses &c." a numbers 
" of Seauex were in their Towns, and they believed not well 
disposed towards us. four of the Wetersoons are now absent 
they were to have been back in 16 days, they have been 
out 24 we fear they have fallen. My father the Snow is deep 
[230 ] 


and it is cold our horses Cannot travel thro the plains, those 
people who have Spilt our blood have gone back ? if you 
will go with us in the Spring after the Snow goes off we will 
raise the warriers of all the Towns & Nations around about 
us, and go with you." 

I told this nation that we should be always willing and 
ready to defend them from the insults of any nation who 
would dare to Come to doe them injury dureing the time 
we would remain in their neighbourhood, and requsf! that they 
would inform us of any party who may at any time be dis- 
covered by their Patroles or Scouts; I was sorry that the 
snow in the Plains had fallen so Deep Sence the Murder of 
the young Chief by the Sieoux as prevented their horses from 
traveling. I wished to meet those Seeoux & all others who 
will not open their ears, but make war on our dutifull Chil- 
dren, and let you see that the VVariers of your Great father 
will chastize the enimies of his dutifull Children the Mandans, 
Wetersoons & VVinetarees, who have open"! their ears to his 
advice, you say that the Panics or Ricares were with the 
Seeaux, some bad men may have been with the Seeaux you 
know there is bad men in all nations, do not get mad with 
the recarees untill we know if those bad men are Counter- 
nanc"! by their nation, and we are convs'' those people do not 
intend to follow our Councils. You know that the Seeaux 
have great influence over the ricarees, and perhaps have led 
Some of them astray you know that the Ricarees, are De- 
pendant on the Seeaux for their guns, powder, & Ball, and it 
was policy in them to keep on as good tirms as possible with 
the Seaux untill they had Some other means of getting those 
articles &c. &c. You know yourselves that you are compelled 
to put up with little insults from the Christinoes i£ Ossinaboins 
(or Stone Indf) because if you go to war with those people, 
they will provent the traders in the North from bringing you 
Guns, Powder & Ball and by that means distress you verry 
much, but whin you will have certain Supplies from your 
Great American father of all those articles you will not Suffer 
any nation to insult you &c. after about two hours conversa- 
tion on various Subjects all of which tended towards their 
[331 ] 


Situation &c. I informed them I should return to the fort, 
the Chief said they all thanked me verry much for the fatherly 
protection which I shewed towards them, that the village had 
been crying all the night and day for the death of the brave 
young man, who fell but now they would wipe away their 
tears, and rejoice in their fathers protection, and cry no more. 
I then Paraded & Crossed the river on the ice and Came 
down on the N. Side, the Snow So Deep, it was verry 
fatigueing arived at the fort after night, gave a little Taffee' 
{dram to my party) ^ a cold night the river rise to its former 
hite. The Chief frequently thanked me for comeing to pro- 
tect them — and the whole village appeared thankfuU tor that 

I'.' of December SatturJay 1804 — 

Wind from the NW, all hands ingaged in gitting pickets 
&c. at 10 oClock the half brother of the man who was killed 
came & inform"" us that after my departure last night Six 
Chiens so called by the french or Shar ha Indians had arrived 
with a pipe and said that their nation was at one days march 
and intended to come & trade &c. three Panies had also 
arrived from the nation, [their nation was then within j days 
march is' were coming on to trade with us Three Pawnees 
accomp'' these Chayennes The mandans call all ricaras Pawnees 
dont use the name of rid but the ric^ call themselves Rics) The 
Mandans apprehended danger from the Shar has as they were 
at peace with the Seaux ; and wished to Kill them and the 
Ricaries (or panies) but the Chiefs informed the nation it was 
our wish that they Should not be hurt, and forbid their being 
killed &c." We gave a little Tobacco &c. & this man 
Departed well satisfied with our Councils and advice to him. 

in the evening a Ml G Henderson [arrived — Ed.] in the 
imploy of the hudsons bay Company sent to trade with the 
Gros ventre, or Big bellies so called by the french traders 

1 A corruption of "tafia," defined as " an inferior kind of rum, distilled from 
sugar refuse or from coarse molasses." Coues {L, and C, p. 215) asserts that this is 
"a Malay word which we get from the French by way of the West Indies. We 
call this liquor Jamaica." — Ed. 

[232 ] 

"^°4] AT l-ORT MANDAN 

T."."! of December Sunday 1 804 — 

The latter part of last night was verry warm and continued 
to thaw until! [blank in MS.] oCiock when the wind Shifted 
to the North at i 1 oCiock the Chiefs of the Lower \'illage 
of the Mandans [came] with many of theire young men and 
4 of the Shar-has who had come to Smoke with the pipe of 
Peace with the Mandans, we explained to them our inten- 
tions our views and advised them to be at peace, Gave them 
a flag for theire nation, Some Tobacco with a Speech to 
Dilever to their nation on theire return, also Sent by them a 
letter to M" Tabbo & Gravoline, at the Ricares Village, to 
mterseed m proventing Hostilities, and if they Could not 
efl^ect those measures to Send & inform us of what was going 
on, Statemg to the Indians the part we intend to take if the 
Rickores & Seauex did not follow our Derections and be at 
peace with the nations which we had addopted. we made 
Some fiew Small presents to those Shar-has and also Some to 
the Mandans & at j oCIock they all Departed well pleased, 
haveing Seen many Curesostties, which we Showed them, 
river rise one inch 

3"? December Monday 1 804 

a fine morning the after part of the day cold & windev the 
wmd from the NW. the Father of the Mandan who was 
killed came and made us a present of Some Dried Simnins 
[Pumpkins) & a little pimecon, {pemitigon) we made him Some 
small preasents for which he was much pleased 

4" of December Tuesday 1804 

a cloudy raw Day wind from the N.W. the Black cat and 
two young Chiefs Visit us and as usial Stay all Day the river 
rise one inch fini[s]h the main bastion, ' our interpet^ (Jes- 
saume) we discover to be assumeing and discontent'd.' 

1 Biddle here makes a brief statement of the religious belief and origin-myth of the 
Mandan; cf. therewith Catlin's Itlust. N. Amer. Inds. (London, .866), i, pp. ,56, 
'57, i77-'83. and Maximilian's l^oyage, ii, pp. 418-436. —Ed. 

[2^i ] 


5''' December Wednesday — 1804 

a cold raw morning wind from the S.E. Some Snow, two 
of the NW. Company Came to See us, to let us Know they in- 
tended to Set out for the establishment on the ossinniboin 
River in two Days, & their party would Consist of 5 men, 
Several Indians also visited us one brought Pumpkins or Sim- 
nins as a preasent. a little Snow fell in the evening at which 
time the wind Shifted round to N.E. 

6''/ of December Thursday 1S04 Fort Mandan — 

The wind blew violently hard from the N.N.W. with Some 
Snow the air Keen and cold. The Thermometer at 8 oClock 
A.M. Stood at lo dg' above o. at 9 oClock a man & his 
squar Came down with Some meat for the interpeter his dress 
was a par mockersons of BufFalow Skin & P' Legins of Goat 
Skin & a BufFalow robe, 14 ring of Brass on his fingers, this 
Metel {ornament) the Mandans ar verry fond off. cold after 
noon river rise 1 3^ Inch to day. 

[Memorandum, p. 220 :] Cap! Clark Set out with a hunting 
party Killed 8 Bulfalow & returned next day 

j'll of December Friday 1804 — 

a verry cold day wind from the NW. the Big White Grand 
Chief of the i" Village, came and informed us that a large 
Drove of BufFalow was near and his people was wating for us 
to join them in a chase Cap! Lewis took 15 men & went out 
joined the Indians, who were at the time he got up, Killing 
the BufFalow on Horseback with arrows which they done with 
great dexterity,^ his party killed 10 BufFalow, /x'f of which 
we got to the fort by the assistance of a horse in addition to 
what the men Packed on their backs, one cow was killed on 
the ice after drawing her out of a vacancey in the ice in which 
She had fallen, and Butchered her at the fort, those we did 

1 Biddle gives (i, p. 140) a more detailed account of the Indians' butfalo hunt. 
Gass says (p. 89) that Lewis took eleven men with him, who killed 11 buffalo, while 
the Indians killed 30 or 40. — Ed. 



not get in was taken by the indians under a Custom which is 
established amongst them i e. any person seeing a buffalow 
lying without an arrow Sticking in him, or some purticular 
mark takes possession, many times (as I am told) a hunter 
who kills maney Buffalow in a chase onlv Gets a part of one, 
all meat which is left out all night falls to the IVolves which 
are in great numbers, always in [the neighborhood of— Ed.] 
the Buffalows. the river Closed opposit the fort last night 
i>< inches thick, The Thermometer Stood this Morning at 
I d. below o. three men frost bit badly to day. 

8//;. December Satturday 1804 

a verry Cold morning, the Thermometer Stood at ii'- below 

which is 42''- below the freesing point, wind from the NW. 

1 with 15 men turned out {Indians joined us on horseback shot 
with arrows rode along side of buffaloe) and killed 8 buffalow 
& one Deer, one Cow and calf was brought in, two Cows 
which I killed at 7 miles Ds'- I left 2 men to Skin & keep off 
the Wolves, and brought in one Cow & a calf, in the even- 
ing on my return to the fort Saw great numbers of Buffalow 
Comeing into the Bottom on both Sides of the river this day 
being Cold Several men returned a little /roj/ bit, one of [the] 
men with his feet badly frost bit my Servents feet a.\so frosted 

& his P s a little, I felt a little fatigued haveing run after 

the Buffalow all day in Snow many Places 18 inches Deep, 
generally 6 or 8, two men hurt their hips verry much in 
Slipping down. The Indians kill great numbers of Buffalow 
to day. 2 reflectings Suns to day. 

9-;* December Sunday i S04 — 

The Thermometer Stood this morning at 7' above o, wind 
from the E. Cap'; Lewis took 18 men & 4 horses (j hired i 
bought) and went out [to] Send in the meet killed yesterday 
and kill more, the Sun Shown to day Clear, both interpeters 
went to the Villages to day at 12 oClock two Cheifs came 
loaded with meat, one with a dog & Slay also loaded with meat. 
Cap"- Lewis Sent 4 Hors's loaded with meat, he continued at 
the hunting Camp near which the[v] killed 9 buffalow. 
[ 235 ]' 


lo'^ Monday Dec. 180+ Fort Mandan — 

a verry Cold Day The Thermometer to day at lo & ii 
Degrees, below o.' Cap! Lewis returned, to day at 12 oClock 
leaveing 6 Men at the Camp to prepare the meat for to pack 
4 Horse loads came in, Cap! Lewis had a Cold Disagreeable 
night last in the Snow on a Cold point with one Small Blankett, 
the BiifFalow crossed the river below in imence herds without 
brakeing in. only 1 bufFalow killed to day one of which was 
too pore to Skin, The men which was frost bit is getting 
better, the [river] rise i^ inch wind North. 

11','' December Tuesday 1804 — 

a verry Cold morning Wind from the north The Ther- 
mometer at 4 oClock A M. at 21. \5unri5e at 21. see Ust'\ 
below o which is 53° below the freesing point and getting 
colder, the Sun Shows and reflects two imigies, the ice float- 
ing in the atmospear being So thick that the appearance is like 
a fog Despurceing. 

Sent out three horses for meat & with Derections for all the 
hunters to return to the fort as Soon as possible at i oClock 
the horses returned loaded, at night all the hunters returned. 
Several a X\XX\q frosted., The Black Cat Chief of the Mandans 
paid us a Visit to day, continue Cold all day river at a 

1 1* December IFednesday 1S04 — 

a Clear Cold morning Wind from the north the Ther- 
mometer at Sun rise Stood at 38 below o., moderated untill 6 
oClock at which time it began to get Colder. I line my Gloves 
and have a Cap made of the Skin of the Louservia' (Lynx) (or 
wild Cat of the North) the fur near 3 inches long, a Indian 
oitVzShoe^ {Maharha or Mocassin) Nation Came with the half 

1 An experiment was made with proof spirits, which in fifteen minutes froze into 
hard ice. — Gass (p. 90). 

- A corruption of the French loup-cer'vier, the common name of the Canada lynx 
(^Lynx canadensis^. — Ed. 

' Merely an Anglicized form of the French appellation Gens de Soulier, applied to 
the Ahnahaway (see p. 208, note 2, ante). — Ed. 



of a Cabra ko ka or Antilope which he killed near the Fort. 
Great numbers of those animals are near our fort {so that they 
do not all return to rock mountain Goat) but the weather is So 
Cold that we do not think it prudent to turn out to hunt in 
Such Cold weather, or at least untill our Const! are prepared 
to under go this Climate. I measure the river from bank to 
bank on the ice and make it 500 yards 

13? December Thursday 1804 — 

The last night was verry Clear & the frost which fell covered 
the ice old Snow & those parts which was naked ' >, of an inch, 
The Thermometer Stands this morning at 20" below o, a fine 
day. find it imposible to make an Observation with an arte- 
ficial Horrison. Joseph Fields kill a Cow and Calf to day, 
one mile from the Fort. River fall. 

14'* December FriJay 1S04 — 

a fine Morning, wind from the S. E. the Murckerey Stood 
at o this morning I went with a party of men down the river 
18 miles' to hunt Buffalow, Saw two Bulls too pore to kill, 
the Cows and large gangues haveing left the River, we only 
killed two Deer & Camped all night with Some expectation 
of Seeing the Buffalow in the morning, a verry Cold night, 

M't of December 1804 Satturday — 

a Cold Clear morning, Saw no buffalow, I concluded to 
return to the fort & hunt on each Side of the river on our 
return which we did without Success, the Snow fell 1 1^ inches 
deep last night. Wind North, on my return to the fort 
found Several Chiefs there. 

16'" December Sunday 1804 

a clear Cold morning, the Thermt^ at Sun rise Stood at ii\ 
below o, a verry singaler appearance of the Moon last night, 
as She appeared thro: the frosty atmispear. Mr. Henny from 
the Establishment on River Ossinniboin, with a letter from, 

' "On the ice with Slays," according to a memorandum on p. 220 of this 
Codex. — Ed. 


M' Charles Chaboillez one of the C° arrived in 6 Days/ Mr. 
C. in his letter expressed a great anxiety to Serve us in any 
thing in his power.^ 

'•'a root Discribed bv M^ Henny for the Cure of a Mad 
Dog [blank in MS. —Ed.] 

M; LeRock a clerk, of the NW. Company and M' George 
Bunch a Clerk of the Hudsons beey Compy accompanied 
M' Henry from the village. 

17" December Monday 1804 — 

a verry Cold morning the Thmt. Stood a[t] 45" below o. 
We found Mr. Henny a Verry intelligent Man from whome 
we obtained Some Scetches of the Countrey between the Mis- 
sissippi & Missouri, and Some Sketches from him, which he 
had obtained from the Indin! to the IVest of this place also the 
names and charecktors of the Seeaux &c. about 8 oCiock 
P M. the thermometer fell to 74' below the freesing pointe. 
the Indian Chiefs Sent word that Buffalow was in our Neigh- 
bourhood, and if we would join them, in the morning they 
would go and kill them. 

18''' December Tuesday 1804. — 

The Themometer the Same as last night M" Haney & 
La Rocke left us for the Grossventre Camp, Sent out 7 men 
to hunt for the Buffalow they found the weather too cold & 
returned. Several Indians Came, who had Set out with a 
View to Kill buffalow, The river rise a little I imploy my 
Self makeing a Small Map of Connextion &c. Sent Jessomme 
to the Main Chief of the mandans to know the Cause of his 

' This post, according to Coues (Henry's Journal, i, p. 29S) was called Fort 
Montagne a la Bosse, situated on the Assiniboin about 50 miles above Mouse River. 
The messenger's name appears in the L. and C. MSS. as Henny, Henry and Haney. 
His real name was Hugh Henney, a trader for the Hudson's Bay Company. Larocque 
mentions his arrival (Masson's Bourg. Nord-Ouest, i, p. 307). Mrs. E. E. Dye cites 
to the Editor from a MS. journal of a Hudson's Bay Company trader (1812-16) the 
additional fact that he was head of the Pembina and Red River (of the North) district 
as late as 18:2, when he was superseded by Peter Fidler, with whose earlier explora- 
tion Lewis and Clark were acquainted. — Ed. 

2 The object of the visits we received from the N. W. Company, was to ascertain 
our motives for visiting that country, and to gain information with respect to the change 
of government. — Gass (p. 92). 

[ 238 ] 

= ^r ,1 I :^ 

^3r- >a ri 

''^ .W. 

MS. Page, by Clark, dated December 24, 1804. 

'**°+] AT FOR-r MANDAX 

detaining or takeing a horse of Chabome our big belly inter- 
peter, which ue found was thro: the rascallity of one Lafrance 
a trader from the NW. Company, who told this Chief that 
Chabonat ow^ him a horse to go and take him he done So 
agreeable to an indian Custom, he gave up the horse 

19':' December IVednesday 1804 — 

The Wind from the S.VV. the weather moderated a little I 
engage my Self in Connecting the countrey from information 
river rise a little ' 

2o'f; December Thursday 1804 

The wind from the NW a moderate dav, the Ther- 
mometer 37: (24 ) above o, which givs an oppertunity of 
putting up our pickets next the river, nothing remarkable 
took place to Day river fall a little 

2i^f December Friday 1804 

a fine Day warm and wind from the NW by W the 
Indian whome I stoped from Commiting Murder on his wife 
thro jellosy of one of our interpeters, Came & brought his 
two wives and Shewed great anxiety to make up with the man 
with whome his joulussey Sprung, a Womon brought a 
Child with an abcess on the lower part of the back, and offered 
as much Corn as she Could Carry for some Medison, Cap' 
Lewis administered &c. 

22";' December Satturday 1804 — 

r^iT"".; ^' "'""^^'' °^ ^'l""'' ^ '"^" Dressed in Squars 
Clothes- Came with Corn to Sell to the men for little things 
We precured tw o horns of the animale the french Call the 

' Biddle here describes a game played by ,l,e Mandan with flat rings and sticks 
on a level surface En. 

- Reference is here made to a singular cLass of men who have been found by 
travellers and explorers among most of the Southern and Western tribes ; thev are 
commonly cal ed <. berdashes - (a corruption of Fr. bardache). They assumed iemi- 
nme garb and occupations, for the entire span of life, and were regarded with the 
utmost contempt by their tribesmen. For accounts of this strange custom, see 
Lafitau s Moeurs des sau-vages, i, pp. 5., 53 ; Long s Expedition, i. p. .29 ; Carr's 
Mounds oj M,ss. Valley, p. 33 ; Ca.lin's A^ Amer. Ind.ans,'^, pp. \:l..', Henr,-: 
-Journal, ,, pp. 53, ,63-, 65 ; and Jes. Relations, lix, p. 129. -Ed. 

[239 J 


rock Mountain Sheep those horns are not of the largest kind 
The Mandans Indians Call this Sheep Ar-Sar-ta it is about 
the Size of a large Deer, or Small Elk, its Horns Come out 
and wind around the head like the horn of a Ram and the 
tecture {texture) not unlike it much larger and thicker, per- 
ticelarly that part with which they but[t] or outer part which 
is [blank in MS.] inchs thick, the length of those horns, 
which we have is [blank in MS.] 

23','' December Sunday 1S04 — 

a fine Day great numbers of indians of all discriptions 
Came to the fort many of them bringing Corn to trade, the 
little Crow, load** his wife & Sun with Corn for us, Cap. 
Lewis gave him a few presents as also his wife. She made a 
kittle of boiled Cimnins, beens. Corn & Choke Cheries with 
the Stones, which was palitable This Desh is Considered, as 
a treat among those people, the Chiefs of the Mandans are 
fond of stayin' & Sleeping in the fort 

24';' December Monday 1804 — 

Several Chiefs and numbers of Men Womin and Children 
at the fort to Day, Some for trade, the most as lookers on, 
we gave a fellet of Sheep Skin (which we brought for Spung- 
ing) to 3 Chiefs one to each of 2 inches wide, [on] which they 
lay Great value (priseing those felets equal to a fine horse), a 
fine Day we finished the pickengen {picketing) around our 

25"' December C/irislmass Tuesday — 

I was awakened before Day by a discharge of 3 platoons 
from the Party and the french, the men merrily Disposed, I 
give them all a little Taffia and permited 3 Cannon fired, at 
raising Our flag. Some Men Went out to hunt & the others 
to Danceing and Continued untill 9 oClock P.M. when the 
frolick ended &c." 

1 Biddle says : " We had told the Indians not to visit us, as it was one ot our 
great medicine days." Gass says : " Flour, dried apples, pepper, and other articles 
were distributed in the different messes to enable them to celebrate Christmas in a 
proper and social manner." Three rations of brandy were served during the day, 
which was mainly spent in dancing ; no women were present save Charboneau's three 
wives, who were only spectators. — Ed. 



26"' Deer Wednesday 1804 — 

a temperate day no Indians to day or yesterday. A man 
from the NW. Company Came Down from the Gross Ventres 
to get one of our interpeters to assist them in trade This 
man informed that the Party of Gross Ventres who persued 
the Assinihoins that Stold their horses, had all returned in 
their useal way by Small parties, the last of the party bringing 
8 horses which they Stole from a Camp of Assiniboins which 
they found on Mouse River. 

27';* December 1804 Thursday 

a little fine Snow weather Something Colder than yesterday 
Several Indians here to Day, much Suprised at the Bellos 
(Bellows)' & method of makeing Sunderv articles of Iron 
Wind hard from the NW.- 

1 Which they considered as a very great medicine. — Biddle (L and C i 
P- '45)- ■' ' 

2 Here follows, in Biddle, a sketch of the Siouan tribes, mainly the same infor- 
mation which we have thus far obtained from the MS. text. — Ed. 

VOL. I. — 16 



Chapter VI 


Clark's Journal, December i%, 1804 — Februar)- 2, 1805 ; February 13 — March 21, 1805 
Entries by Lewis, February 3-13 and March 16 

[[Clark :3 ^^'■' of December Friday 1804. — 

BLEW verry hard last night, the frost fell like a Shower 
of Snow, nothing remarkable to day, the Snow 
Drifting from one bottom to another and from the 
leavel plains into the hollows &c. 

29'/' December SatturJay 1S04 

The frost fell last night nearly a i<:j^ of an inch Deep and 
Continud to fall untill the Sun was of Some hite, the Mur- 
cury Stood this Morning at 9. below o which is not considered 
Cold, as the Changes take place gradually without long inter- 
misions a number of Indians here 

3o(f December Sunday 1804 — 

Cold the Termt' at 20^ below o a number of Indians here 
to day they are much Supprised at the Bellows one Deer 

3 1 ^f of December Monday i 8 04 Fort Man Jan — 

a fine Day Some wind last night which Mixed the Snow 
and Sand in the bead of the river, which has the appearance 
of hillocks of Sand on the ice, which is also Covered with 
Sand & Snow, the frost which falls in the night. Continues 
on the earth & old Snow &c. &c. a number of Indians here 
every Day our blakSmith Mending their axes hoes &c. &c. 
for which the Squars bring Corn for payment.' 

1 Biddle here adds : " In their general conduct during these visits they are honest, 
but will occasionally pilfer any small article." Mackenzie says (Masson's Bourg. 



Fori ManJan on the NE hank of the Missouries /6oo Miles up TuetJay 

January the i\[ 1805. — 

The Day was ushered in by the Descharge of two Cannon, 
we Suffered i6 men with their Musick to visit the i" Village 
for the purpose of Danceing, by as they Said the perticular 
request of the Chiefs of that Village, about ii oClock I with 
an inturpeter & two men walked up to the Village, (my views 
were to alay Some little Miss understanding which had taken 
place thro jelloucy and mortification as to our treatment 
towards them I found them much pleased at the Danceing 
of our men,' I ordered my black Servent to Dance which 
amused the Croud Verry much, and Somewhat astonished 
them, that So large a man should be active &c. &c. I went 
into the lodges of all the men of note, except two, whome I 
heard had made Some expressions not favourable towards us, 
in Compareing us with the traders from the north, — those 
Chiefs observed {to us that) what they Sayed was in just (in 
jest) & laftur. just as I was about to return, the 2'! Chief 
z{nd) the Black man, also a Chief return'' from a Mission on 
which they had been Sent to meet a large party (150) of Gross 
Ventres'- who were on their way down from their Camps 10 
Miles above to revenge on the Shoe tribe an injury which they 
had received by a Shoe man Steeling a Gross Ventres Girl, 
those Chiefs gave the pipe [and] turned the party back, after 
Delivering up the Girl, which the Shoe Chief had taken and 
given to them for that purpose." I returned in the evening, 

Nord-Ouest, i, p. 330), of the Indian opinion regarding Lewis and Clark : " The 
Indians admired the air gun, as it could discharge forty shots out of one load, but 
they dreaded the magic of the owners. < Had I these white warriors in the upper 
plains," said the Gros Ventres chief, ' my young men on horseback would soon do for 
them, as they would do for so many wolves, for,' continued he, ' there are only two 
sensible men among them, the worker of iron and the mender of guns." "" — Ed. 

' " Particularly with the movements of one of the Frenchmen who danced on his 
head ■" (Biddle). Coues here asserts (i, p. 219) that Clark explained to Biddle that 
the Frenchman danced on his hands, head downward. Ed. 

- Biddle here adds "or wandering Minnetarees," an epithet often used by Lewis 
and Clark to designate an Arapaho band, who are still known as " Gros Ventres of 
the Prairie,"' in distinction from the " Gros Ventres of the Missouri,"" the term 
commonly applied to the Minitaree (now settled at Fort Berthold, N. D.). See 
p. 225, note, ante. — Ed. 

[ 243 ] 


at night the party except 6 returned, with 3 robes, an[d] 13 
Strings of Corn which the indians had given them. The Day 
was worm, Themt' 34° above o. Some fiew Drops of rain 
about Sunset, at Dark it began to Snow, and Snowed the 
greater part of the night, (the temp" for Snow is about o) 
The Black Cat with his family visited us to day and brought a 
little meet 

a'lf of January Wednadey 1805 — 

a Snowey morning, a party of Men go to Dance at the 
1^^ Village to Dance, Cap' Lewis & the interpt' Visit the i\ 
Village, and return in the evening. Some Snow to Day Verrv 
cold in the evening^ 

yft of January Thursday 1805 — 

Some Snow to day, 8 men go to hunt the buffalow, killed 
a hare & wolf Several Indians visit us to day & a Gross 
Ventre came after his wife, who had been much abused, & 
came here for Protection. 

4"' ") January Friday : 805 Fort Mandan — 

a worm Snowey Morning, the Thermt' at 28. above o, 
Cloudy, Sent out 3 Men to hunt down the river. Several 
Indians Came to day, the little Crow, who has proved friendly 
Came, we gave him a handkerchf & 2 files, in the evening 
the weather became cold and windev, wind from the NW. I 
am Verry unwell the after part of the Daye 

5'/' of January Satturday 1805 — 

a cold day Some Snow, Several Indians visit us with their 
axes to get them mended, I imploy my Self Drawing a Con- 
nection of the Countrey ' from what information I have re- 

^ This day I discovered how the Indians keep their horses during the winter. In 
the day-time they are permitted to run out and gather what they can ; and at night 
are brought into the lodges, with the natives themselves, and fed upon Cottonwood 
branches ; and in this way are kept in tolerable case. — Gass (p. 96). 

- This map was sent to President Jefferson, April 7, 1805, and preserved in the 
archives of the War Department. As drafted by Nicholas King, 1806, it is cited 
herein as "Lewis's map of 1S06." — CouES (i. and C, i, p. Z2i). 

An atlas volume contains this and others of Clark's maps. 


i^iK-E/'^ . 'A.„,r^;.,^. . ^,,//„,, / 


c[e]ved. a Buffalow Dance (or Medeson) {Medecine) for 3 
nights passed in the i" Village, a curious Custom the old 
men arrange themselves in a circle & after Smoke[ing] a pipe 
which is handed them by a young man, Dress[ed] up for the 
purpose, the young men who have their wives back of the 
Circle go [each] to one of the old men with a whining tone 
and request the old man to take his wife (who presents [her- 
self] necked except a robe) and — (or Sleep with her) the 
Girl then takes the Old Man (who verry often can scarcely 
walk) and leades him to a convenient place for the business, 
after which they return to the lodge ; if the old man (or a 
white man) returns to the lodge without gratifying the Man & 
his wife, he offers her again and again ; it is often the Case that 
after the 2'! time without Kissing the Husband throws a new 
robe over the old man &c. and begs him not to dispise him 
& his wife (We Sent a man to this Medisan Dance last 
night, they gave him 4 Girls) all this is to cause the buffalow 
to Come near So that they may Kill them ' 

G','! of January Sunday i 805 — 

a Cold day but fiew Indians to day I am ingaved 
[engaged] as yesterday 

7m' of January Monday 1805 — 

a verry cold Clear Day. The Themt! Stood at 22! below 
o Wind NW., the river fell i inch Several Indians returned 
from hunting, one of them the Big White Chief of the 
Lower Mandan Village, Dined with us, and gave me a Scetch 
of the Countrey as far as the high Mountains, & on the South 
Side of the River Rejone," he Says that the river rejone 
recvees {receives) 6 Small rivers on the S. Side, & that the 
Countrey is verry hilley and the greater part Covered with 
timber Great numbers of beaver &c. the 3 men returned 
from hunting, they kill?, 4 Deer & 2 Wolves, Saw Buffalow a 
long ways off". I continue to Draw a connected plott from the 

' This ceremony is described much more fully by Biddle (i, pp. 150, 151), and 
by Prince Maximilian (^oy/igf, ii, pp. 453, 454, and iii, pp. 56-60). — Ed. 

'^ An imperfect phonetic rendering of the French name Roche-Jaune, meaning 
" Yellowstone," still applied to the river here described. — Ed. 



information of Traders, Indians & my own observation & 
ideas, from the best information, the Great falls is about 
[Soo) miles nearly West,^ 

S'f! of January Tuesday 1805 — 

a cold Day but fiew indians at the fort to day wind from 
the N.W. one man at the Village^ 

9''' of January It'ednesday 1805 

a Cold Dav Themometer at 21! below o, great numbers 
of indians go to kill Cows,^ {C. Clark ace'', them with j or 4 men 
killed a number of cows near the fort.) the little Crow Brackf ! 
with us, Several Indians Call at the Fort nearly frosed, one 
man reported that he had Sent his Son a Small boy to the 
fort about 3 oClock, & was much distressed at not finding him 
here, the after part of this day verry Cold, and wind keen 

lo^J of January Thursday 1805 

last night was excessively Cold the Murkery this morning 
Stood at 40° below o which is 72" below the freesing point, 
we had one man out last night, who returned about 8 oClock 
this morning. The Indians of the lower Villege turned out 
to hunt for a man & a boy who had not returnd from the hunt 
of yesterday, and borrow'd a Slay to bring them in expecting 
to find them frosed to death* about 10 oClock the boy about 

' Larocque says (Masson's Bourgeois, pp. 310, 311) that Lewis and Clark found 
all the longitudes estimated by David Thompson to be inaccurate. He gives interesting 
details as to the territorial claims of the United States, saying: "They include in 
their territory as far north as River Sjti appelle, for, as it was impossible for a line 
drawn west from the west end of Lac des Bois to strike the Mississippi, they make it 
run till it strikes its tributary waters, that is, the north branches of the Missouri and 
from thence to the Pacific." — Ed. 

- Biddle here describes another licentious ceremony, called "the medicine- 
dance." — Ed. 

' The buffaloes were usually called by the French hunters "wild cows" or 
"wild cattle," a term often adopted by the English. — Ed. 

■• In Biddle' s account are found some additional details, especially interesting as 
showing a humane and generous nature in these Indians: "The boy had been a 
prisoner and adopted from charity, yet the distress of the father proved that he felt for 
him the tenderest affection. The man was a person of no distinction, yet the whole 
village was full of anxiety for his safety." — Ed. 

[ 246 ] 


IJ years of age Came to the fort with his feet frosed and had 
laved out last night without fire with only a Buffalow Robe to 
Cover him, the Dress which he wore was a pr. of Cabra 
{antelope) Legins, which is verry thin and mockersons we had 
his feet put in cold water and they are Comeing too. Soon 
after the arrival of the Boy, a Man Came in who had also 
Stayed out without fire, and verry thinly Clothed, this man 
was not the least injured. Customs & the habits of those 
people has anured [them] to bare more Cold than I thought 
It possible for man to endure. Sent out j men to hunt Elk 
below about 7 miles 

I I'f January Friday 1805 

Verry Cold, Send out 3 men to join j now below & hunt 
Pose-cop se ha or Black Cat. came to See us and Stay all night 

Sho tahar ro ra or Coal also stay^ all night, the inturpiter 
oldst wife Sick, Some of our Men go to See a War Medeson 
made at the Village on the opposit Side of the river, this is a 
[blank in MS.] 

12"' of January Satturday 1805 

a verry Cold Day three of our hunters J & R Fields withe 
2 hlk on a Slay Sent one more hunter out. 

'3''m of January Sunday 1805 

a Cold Clear Day (great number of Indians move Down the 
River to hunt) those people Kill a Number of Buffalow near 
their Villages and Save a great perpotion of the Meat, theer 
Custom of makeing this article of life General [see note) {common) 
leaves them more than half of their time without meat ' Their 
Corn & Beans &c they keep for the Summer, and as a reserve 
m Case of an attack from the Soues, [of] which they are always 
m dread and S.ldom go far to hunt except in large parties, 
about y^ the M andans nation passed this to day to hunt on 

of .'he'iribe'wher'' '"'T °^'""'"^ ""'^ ^""= '=<l"^"y ^^^^ -" 'he families 
of he ,r,be, whether or no, these have sen. out men to the hunt, and ,0 their improvi- 
dence and carelessness (see Biddle, i, pp. ,53, ,„). _ En. 

U47 ] 


the river below, they will Stay out some Days, M'. Chabonee 
(our inturpeter) and one man that accompanied him to Some 
loges of the Menatarrees near the Turtle Hill ^ returned, both 
frosed in their faces. Chaboneu informs that the Clerk of the 
Hudson Bay Co. with the Me ne tar res has been Speaking 
Some fiew express"' unfavourable towards us, and that it is Said 
the NW Co: intends building a fort at the Mene tar res. he 
Saw the grand Chief of the Big bellies who Spoke Slightly of 
the Americans, Saying if we would give our great flag to him 
he would Come to See us. 

14"' nf January 1805 Monday 

This morning early a number of Indians men women children 
Dogs &c. &c. passed down on the ice to joine those that passed 
yesterday, we Sent Serg' Pryor and five men with those Indians 
to hunt (Several men with the Venereal cought from the Man- 
dan women) one of our hunters Sent out Several days [ago] 
arived & informs that one Man (Whitehouse) is frost bit and 
Can't walk home. 

is'm January Tuesday 1805 Fort Mandan 

between 12 & 3 oClock this Morning we had a total eclips 
of the Moon, a part of the observations necessary for our pur- 
pose in this eclips we got which is 

at I 2 h-5 7111-545 Total Darkness of the Moon 

at -I -44 -00 End of total Darkness of The moon 

at 3—^0 —10 End of the eclips. 

This morning not so Cold as yesterday Wind from the 
S.E. wind choped around to the N.W. Still temperate four 
Considerate [considerable — Ed.] men of the Menetarre Came 
to See us We Smoked in the pipe, many Mand' present also, 
we Showed (attentions) to those men who had been impressed 
with an unfavourable oppinion of us [which satisfied them). 

1 On the Little Missouri River, — Ed. 



i6'{' January Wednesday 1S05 

about thirty Mandans came to the fort to day, 6 chiefs, 
those Me-ne-ta-rees told them they were liars, had told them 
if they Came to the fort the whites men would kill them, they 
had been with them all night. Smoked in the pipe and have 
been treated well and the whites had danced for them, observe- 
ing the Mandans were bad and ought to hide themselves, one 
of the iV War Chiefs of the big bell[i]es nation Came to see us 
to day with one man and his Squar to wate on him {requested 
that she might be used for the night) {his wife handsome) We 
Shot the Air gun, and gave two Shots with the Cannon which 
pleased them verry much, the little Crow 2*1 Chf of the lower 
Village Came & brought us Corn &c. 4 men of ours who 
had been hunting returned one frost'd 

This War Chief gave us a Chart in his Way of the Missourie, 
he informed us of his intentions of going to War in the Spring 
against the Snake Indians we advised him to look back at the 
number of Nations who had been distroyed by War, and reflect 
upon what he was about to do, observing if he wished the hapi- 
ness of his nation, he would be at peace with all, by that by 
being at peace and haveing plenty of goods amongst them & a 
free intercourse with those defenceless nations, they would get 
on easy tirms a greater Number of horses, and that Nation 
would increas, if he went to War against those Defenceless 
people, he would displease his great father, and he would not 
receive that pertection & care from him as other nations who 
listened to his word. This Chief who is a young man 26 y' old 
replied that if his going to war against the Snake Indians would 
be displeasing to us he would not go, he had horses enough. 

We observed that what we had said was the words of his 
great father, and what we had Spoken to all the Nations which 
we Saw on our passage up, they all promis to open their ears, 
and we do not know as yet if any of them has Shut them (we 
are doubtful! of the Soues) if they do not attend to what we 
have told them their great father will open their ears. This 
Chief Said that he would advise all his nation to stay at home 
untill we Saw the Snake Indians & Knew if they would be 
friendly, he himself would attend to what we had told him. 
[ -'49 J 


I 7',f January Thursday 1805 

a verry Windey morning hard from the North Ther- 
momiter at o, Several Indians here to day 

iS'f January Friday 1805 

a fine worm morning, M' La Rock a[nd] M-Kinzey Came 
down to See us with them Several of the Grosse Ventres. 

19';; January Satturday 1805. 

a fine Day Mess'.' Le rock & MfKinzey returned home, 
Sent three horses down to our hunting Camp for the meet 
thev had killed, Jussomes Squar, left him and went to the 

a Cold fair day Several Indians at the fort to day a 
Missunderstanding took place between the two inturpeters on 
account of their squars, one of the Squars of Shabowner 
Squars being Sick, I ordered my Servent to give her Some 
froot Stewed and tee at dif times which was the cause of the 

21" Monday January 1805 

a number of Indians here to day a fine day nothing 
remarkable one ban [man] verry bad with the pox. 

zz"^ January 1S05 Tuesday 

a find warm Day attempted to Cut the Boat & perogues 
out of the Ice, found water at about 8 inches under the i'.' 
Ice, the next thickness about 3 feet 

z-^rd January 1805 IVednesday 

A Cold Day Snow fell 4 Inches deep, the accurancies 
{^accurrencies) of this day is as is common 

1 I went up with one of the men to the villages. They treated us friendly and 
gave us victuals. After we were done eating they presented a bowlful to a buffaloe 
head, saying, " eat that."' Their superstitious credulity is so great, that they believe 
by using the head well, the living buffaloe will come, and that they will get a supply 
of meat. — Gass (pp. 98, 99). 

[ 250 ] 


24/// "January Thursday 1805 

.1 fine day, our inturpetcrs appear to understand each other 
better than a fiew days past. Sent out Several hunters, they 
returned without killing any thing, Cut Coal wood.' 

z^'ll of January 1805 Frulay 

we are informed of the arrival of a Band of assniboins at 
the Villages with the Grand Chief of those Tribes Call[ed] the 
(Fee de petite veau) {Fils de Petit veau) to trade, one of our 
interpeters & one man Set out to the Big Belley Camp opposit 
the Island, men eniploy'd in Cutting the Boat out of the ice, 
and Collecting Coal wood. 

26'f oj January SatturJay 1805 

a verry fine worm Dav Several Indians Dine with us and 
are much Pleased, one man taken violently Bad with the 
Plurisie, Bleed & apply those remedies Common to that dis- 

^7"! of January Sunday 1805 

a fine dav, attempt to Cut our Boat and Canoos out of 
the Ice, a deficuelt Task I fear as we find water between the 
Ice, I bleed the man with the Plurisy to day & Swet him, 
Cap" Lewis took off the Toes of one foot of the Boy who got 
frost bit Some time ago, Shabonoe our interpeter returned, 
& informed that the Assiniboins had returned to their Camps, 
& brought 3 horses of M' Larock's to Stay here for fear of 
their being Stolen by the Assiniboins who are great rogues." 
cut off the boy['s] toes. 

z%": January Monday 1805 

attempt to Cut through the ice to get our Boat and Canoo 
out without Suckcess, Several Indians here , 
wishing to get War hatchets Made the man jfc^ ^^gT^ t^jc^. 
Sick yesterday is getting well M' Jessome our 
interpiter was taken verry unwell this evening worm day 

' Wood to make charcoal. — Biddle (i, p. 156). 

^ Larocque says that he sent his horses to the fort in accordance with Captain 
Clark's offer to care for them with his own animals. — Ed. 



29''* "January Tuesday 1S05 

Gave Jassome a Dost of Salts We Send & Collect Stones 
and put them on a large log heap to heet them with a view of 
worming water in the Boat and by that means, Sepperate her 
from the Ice, our attempt appears to be defeated by the 
Stones all breaking & flying to peaces in the fire, a fine worm 
Dav, we are now burning a large Coal pit, to mend the 
indians hatchets, & make them war axes, the only means by 
which we precure Corn trom them. 

30'^ January Wednesday 1805 

a fine morning, clouded up at 9 oClock, M' La Rocke 
paid us a Visit, & we gave him an answer respecting the request 
he made when last here of accompanying us on our Journey 

&c. {refused) 

^i" January Thursday 1S05 

Snowed last night, wind high trom the NW. Sawed off the 
boys toes Sent 5 men down the river to hunt with 2 horses, 
our interpeter something better, George Drewyer taken with 
the Pleurisv last evening Bled & gave him Some Sage tea, this 
morning he is much better. Cold disagreeable Day 

i^f of February Friday 1S05 

a cold windey Day our hunters return"! haveing killed only 
one Deer, a War Chief of the Me ne tar ras came with some 
Corn requested to have a War hatchet made, & requested to 
be allowed to go to War against the Soues & Recarres who 
had Killed a mandan Some time past. We retused, and gave 
reassons, which he verrv readily assented to, and promised to 
open his ears to all We Said this Man is voung and named 
{Seeing Snake)- Mar-book, She-ah-0-ke-ah. this mans Woman 
Set out & he prosued her, in the evening 

x'\f of February Satturday 1805 

a fine Day, one Deer killed our interpeter Still unwell, 
one of the wives of the Big belley interpet' Sick. M' Larocke 
leave us to day (this man is a Clerk to the NW. Company, & 
verrv anxious to accompany us) 

[ 2-^2 1 


CLewis :] 3--^ „y february Sunday 1 805. » 

a fine day; the blacksmith again commences his oppera- 
tions. we were visited by but few of the natives today, the 
situation of our boat and perogues is now allarming, they are 
firmly inclosed in the Ice and almost covered with snow — the 
ice which incloses them lyes in several stratas of unequal thick- 
nesses which are seperated by streams of water, this [is] 
peculiarly unfortunate because so soon as we cut through the 
first strata of ice the water rushes up and rises as high as the 
upper surface of the ice and thus creates such a debth of water 
as renders it impracticable to cut away the lower strata which 
appears firmly attatched to, and confining the bottom of the 
vessels, the instruments we have hitherto used has been the 
ax only, with which, we have made several attempts that 
proved unsuccessful 1 from the cause above mentioned, we 
then determined to attempt freeing them from the ice by 
means ot boiling water which we purposed heating in the 
vessels by means of hot stones, but this expedient proved also 
fruitless, as every species of stone which we could procure in 
the neighbourhood partook so much of the calcarious genus 
that they burst into small particles on being exposed to the 
heat ot the fire, we now determined as the dernier resort to 
prepare a parsel of Iron spikes and attatch them to the end of 
small poles of convenient length and endeavour by means 
of them to free the vessels from the ice. we have already 
prepared a large rope of Elk-skin and a windless bv means of 
which we have no doubt of being able to draw the boat on the 
bank provided we can free [it] from the ice. 

4'/' February, Monday 1805. 

This morning fair tho' could the thermometer stood at 
18": below Naught, wind from N W. Capt Clark set out 
with a hunting party consisting of sixteen of our command 

' From this point to the 13th of Febniary, the journal is written by Lewis, during 
Clark's absence on a hunting expedition (Feb. 4-12). This is the only hiatus in 
Clark's regular journalizing, throughout the entire expedition ; but under date of Feb- 
ruary 13th, pp. 259-261, post, after his return, he gives a brief summary of the events 
of each day during his trip, so that his record is practically complete, Ed. 



and two frenchmen who together with two others, have estab- 
lished a small hut and resided this winter within the vicinity 
of Fort Mandane under our protection, visited by many of 
the natives today, our stock of meat which we had procured 
in the Months of November & December is now nearly ex- 
hausted ; a supply of this articles is at this moment peculiarly 
interesting as well for our immediate consumption, as that we 
may have time before the approach of the warm season to 
prepare the meat for our voyage in the spring of the year. 
Capt. Clark therefore determined to continue his rout down 
the river even as far as the River bullet' unless he should find 
a plenty of game nearer, the men transported their baggage 
on a couple of small wooden Slays drawn by themselves, and 
took with them 3 pack horses which we had agreed should be 
returned with a load of meat to fort mandane as soon as they 
could procure it. no buffaloe have made their appearance in 
our neighbourhood for some weeks {time shorter) ; and I am 
informed that our Indian neighbours suffer extreemlv at this 
moment for the article of flesh. Shields killed two deer this 
evening, both very lean one a large buck, he had shed his 

5'.'' February Tuesjay 1805. — 

Pleasent morning wind from N.W. fair ; visited by many 
of the natives who brought a considerable quanty of corn in 
payment for the work which the blacksmith had done for 
them they are pecu[l]arly attatched to a battle ax formed in 
a very inconvenient manner in my opinion, it is fabricated 
of iron only, the blade is extreemly thin, from 7 to nine 
inches in length and from ^l^, to 6 Inches on it's edge, from 
whence the sides proceed nearly in a straight line to the eye 
where it's width is generally not more than an inch, the eye 
is round & about one inch in diameter, the handle seldom 
more than fourteen inches in length, the whole weighing about 
one pound the great length of the blade of this ax, added to 
the small size of the handle renders a stroke uncertain and 

1 The Cannon-ball River, which empties into the Missouri near Fort Rice, N. D. 
The expedition had reached the mouth of this stream on Oct. iS. — Ed. 



easily avoided, while the shortness of the handel must render a 
blow much less forceable if even well directed, and still more 
mconvenient as they uniformly use this instrument in action 
on horseback. The oalder fassion is still more inconvenient, 
it is somewhat in the form of the blade of an Espantoon ' 
but is attatch-! to a helve of the dementions before discribed 
the blade is sometimes by way of ornament pur- 
forated with two three or more small circular C3>^^ 
holes the following is the general figure it is 11 
from 12 to 15 inces in length • 

$'!• February Weiinesday 1805. 

Fair morning Wind from N.W. had a slev prepared against 
the return of the horses which Capt Clark 'had promised to 
send back as soon as he should be able to procure a load of 
meat, visited by many of the natives among others the Big 
white, the Coal, big-man, hairy horn and the black man, I 
smoked with them, after which they retired, a deportment not 
common, for they usually pester us with their good company 
the ballance of the day after once being introduced to our 
apartment. Shields killed three antelopes this evening, the 
blacksmiths take a considerable quantity of corn today in pay- 
ment for their labour, the blacksmith's have proved a happy 
reso[r]ce to us in our present situation as I believe it would 
have been difficult to have devised any other method to have 
procured corn from the natives, the Indians are extravegantly 
fond of sheet iron of which they form arrow-points and manu- 
facter into instruments for scraping and dressing their buffiiloe 
robes. I permited the blacksmith to dispose of a part of a 
sheet iron callaboos {camboose; stove) which had been nearly 
birnt out on our passage up the river, and for each piece about 
four inches square he obtained from seven to eight gallons of 
corn from the natives who appeared extreemly pleased with 
the exchange 

' A rare and practically obsolete form of spontoon, a word itself now little used. 
The implement meant is the half-pike, a sort of halberd formerly used by certain 
officers of the British army. — CouES (/,. and C, i, p. 230). 

- This is an unusual form of caboose, from the Dutch mariners' name of the cook's 
galley. — Ed. 

I -'55 ] 


7'/' February Thursday 1805. 

This morning was fair Thermometer at i8'. above naught 
much warmer than it has been for some days ; wind S.E. con- 
tinue to be visited by the natives. The Serg! of the guard 
reported that the Indian women (wives to our interpreters) 
were in the habit of unbaring the fort gate at any time of night 
and admitting their Indian visitors, I therefore directed a 
lock to be put to the gate and ordered that no Indian but 
those attatched to the garrison should be permitted to remain 
all night within the fort or admitted during the period which 
the gate had been previously ordered to be kept shut, which 
was from sunset untill sunrise. 

8'/-' February Friday 1805. 

This morning was fair wind S.E. the weather still warm and 
pleasent. visited by the black-Cat the principal chief of the 
Roop-tar-he, or upper mandane village, this man possesses 
more integrety, firmness, inteligence and perspicuety of mind 
than any Indian I have met with in this quarter, and I think 
with a little management he may be made a usefull agent in 
furthering the views of our government. The black Cat pre- 
sented me with a bow and apologized for not having completed 
the shield he had promised alledging that the weather had been 
too could to permit his making it, I gave him som small shot 
6 fishing-hooks and 2 yards of ribbon his squaw also pre- 
sented me with i pair of mockersons for which in return I 
gave a small lookingglass and a couple of nedles. the chief 
dined with me and left me in the evening, he informed me 
that his people suffered very much for the article of meat, and 
that he had not himself tasted any for several days. 

9'.* February Saturday 1805. 

The morning fair and pleasent, wind from S.E. visited by 
M; M^Kinzey one of the N.W. Company's clerks, this even- 
ing a man by the name of Howard whom I had given permis- 
sion to go [to] the Mandane vilage returned after the gate was 
shut and reather than call to the guard to have it opened 
scaled the works an Indian who was looking on shortly after 


followed his example. I convinced the Indian of the impro- 
pryety of his conduct, and explained to him the risk he had 
run of being severely treated, the fellow appeared much 
allarmed, I gave him a small piece of tobacco and sent him 
away Howard I had comitted to the care of the guard with a 
determineation to have him tryed by a Court-martial for this 
offence, this man is an old soldier which still hightens this 

lo"' February Sunday 1805. 

This Morning was Cloudy after a slight Snow which fell in 
the course of the night the wind blue very hard from N.W. 
altho' the thermometer stood at i8^ above naught the violence 
of the wind caused a degree of could that was much more un- 
pleasent than that of yesterday when thermometer stood at lo! 
only above the same point. M' M'Kinzey left me this morn- 
ing. Charbono returned with one ot the Frenchmen, and 
informed me that he had left the three Horses and two men 
with the meat which Cap! Clark had sent at some distance 
below on the river he told me that the horses were heavy 
loaded and that not being shod it was impossible for horses to 
travel on the ice. I determined to send down some men with 
two small slays for the meat and accordingly I gave orders that 
they should set out early the next morning, two men were 
also sent to conduct the horses by way of the plain. 

11'/' February Monday 1805. 

The party that were ordered last evening set out early this 
morning, the weather was fair and could wind N.W. about 
five Oclock this evening one of the wives of Charbono was 
delivered of a fine bov.' it is worthy of remark that this was 
the first child which this woman had boarn, and as is common 
in such cases her labour was tedious and the pain violent ; 
Ml Jessome informed me that he had freequently adminins- 
tered a small portion ot the rattle of the rattle-snake, which he 

' This was Sacajawea, the Shoshone captive purchased by Charboneau, who had 
two other wives among the Mandan. Sacajawea was the only woman taken upon 
the Expedition. — Ed. 

VOL. I. — 17 [ 257 ] 


assured me had never failed to produce the desired effect, that 
of hastening the birth of the child ; having the rattle of a 
snake by me I gave it to him and he administered two rings 
of it to the woman broken in small pieces with the fingers and 
added to a small quantity of water. Whether this medicine 
was truly the cause or not I shall not undertake to determine, 
but I was informed that she had not taken it more than ten 
minutes before she brought forth perhaps this remedy may 
be worthy of future experiments, but I must confess that I 
want faith as to it's efficacy. 

iz'/' February Tuesday 1805. 

The morning was fair tho' could, thermometer at 14. below 
naught wind S.E. ordered the Blacksmith to shoe the horses 
and some others to prepare some gears in order to send them 
down with three slays to join the hunting party and transport 
the meat which they mav have procured to this place the 
men whom I had sent for the meat left by Charbono did not 
return untill 4 OClock this evening. Drewyer arrived with 
the horses about the same time, the horses appeared much 
fatieged I directed some meal brands [bran] given them 
moisened with a little water but to my astonishment found 
that they would not eat it but prefered the bark of the cotton 
wood which forms the principall article of food usually given 
them by their Indian masters in the winter season ; for this 
purpose they cause the tree to be felled by their women and 
the horses feed on the boughs and bark of their tender 
branches, the Indians in our neighbourhood are freequently 
pilfered of their horses by the Recares, Souixs and Assinni- 
boins and therefore make it an invariable rule to put their 
horses in their lodges at night, in this situation the only food 
of the horse consists of a few sticks of the cottonvvood from 
the size of a man's finger to that of his arm. the Indians are 
invariably severe riders, and frequently have occasion for many 
days together through the whole course of the day to employ 
their horses in pursueing the Buffaloe or transporting meat to 
their vilages during which time they are seldom suffered to 
tast food ; at night the Horse returned to his stall where his 


food is what seems to me a scanty allowance of wood, under 
these circumstances it would seem that their horses could not 
long exist or at least could not retain their flesh and strength, 
but the contrary is the fact, this valuable anamall under all 
those disadvantages is seldom seen meager or unfit for service. 
A little after dark this evening Cap! Clark arrived with the 
hunting partv since they set out they have killed forty Deer, 
three buft'aloe bulls, & sixteen Elk, most of them were so 
meager that they were unfit for uce, particularly the Buftaloe 
and male Elk the wolves also which are here extreemly 
numerous helped themselves to a considerable proportion of 
the hunt, if an anamal is killed and lyes only one night 
exposed to the wolves it is almost invariably devoured by 

13'* February IVeJneiJay 1805. 

The morning cloudy thermometer 2! below naught wind 
from S.E. visited by the Black-Cat gave him a battle ax with 
which he appeared much gratifyed. 


1 ' returned last Night from a hunting party much fatigued, 
haveing walked 30 miles on the ice and through Points of 
wood land in which the Snow was nearly Knee Deep 

The 1" day [Feb 4] I left the fort proceeded on the ice to 
new Mandan Island, 22 miles & camped, killed nothing, & 
nothing to eat, 

The 2''. day the morning verry Cold &: Windev. I broke 
thro the ice and got my teet and legs wet, Sent out 4 hunters 
thro' a point to kill a Deer & cook it by the time the party 
should get up, those hunters killed a Deer & 2 Buffalow 
Bulls the Buffalow too Meagur to eat, we eate the Deer & 
proceeded on to an old Indian Lodge, Sent out the hunters 
& they brought in three lean Deer, which we made use of for 
food, walking on uneaven ice has blistered the bottoms ot my 
feat, and walking is painfull to me. 

1 Clark here resumes the record, and tlie remainder ot" the journal in Codex C is 
(with the exception of one entry) in his handwriting. — Ed. 



j'j day — cold morning the after part of the Day worm, 
Camped on a Sand point near the mouth of a Creek on the 
SW. Side We Call hunting Creek, I turned out with the 
hunters I killed 2 Deer the hunters killed an Elk, Buffalovv 
Bull, & 5 Deer, all Meager 

4'!' Day — hunted the two bottoms near the Camp Killed 
9 Elk, 18 Deer, brought to camp all the meat fit to eate, & 
had the bones taken out. every man ingaged either in hunt- 
ing or Collecting & packing the meat to Camp 

5'" Day — Despatched one of the party our interpeter & 2 
french men with the 3 horses loaded with the best of the meat 
to the fort 44 miles Distant, the remaining meat I had packed 
on the 2 Slays & drawn down to the next point about 3 miles 
below, at this place I had all the meat collected which was 
killed yesterday & had escaped the Wolves, Ravin & Magpie ; 
(which are verry noumerous about this place) and put into a 
close pen made of logs to secure it from the wolves & birds & 
proceeded on to a large bottom nearly opposit the Chisscheter 
(heart) River, in this bottom we found but little game. Great 
No. of Wolves, on the hills Saw Several parsels of Buffalow. 
Camped. I killed a Buck 

g'b Day — The Buffalow Seen last night provd to be Bulls. 
lean & unfit for to make use of as food, the Distance from 
Camp being nearly 60 miles and the packing of meat that dis- 
tance attended with much dificuelty Deturmined me to return 
and hunt the points above, we Set out on our return and 
halted at an old Indian lodge 40 miles below Fort Mandan, 
Killed 3 Elk, & 2 Deer. 

7"? Day — a cold Day wind blew hard from the N.W. J. 
Fields got one of his ears frosed deturmined to lay by and 
hunt to day Killed an Elk & 6 deer, all that was fit for use 
[of] this meat I had Boned and put into a Close pen made of 

8'f' Day — the air keen halted at the old Camp we stayed 
in on the 2'' night after we left the Fort, expecting to meat the 
horses at this Place, killed 3 Deer, Several men being nearly 
out of Mockersons, & the horses not returning deturmined me 
to return to the Fort on tomorrow. 





9'!" day. — Set out early, Saw great numbers of Grouse feed- 
ing on the young Willows, on the Sand bars, one man I sent 
in persute of a gangue of Elk Killed three near the old Ricara 
Village, and joined at the fort, Sent him back to secure the 
meat, one man with him. The ice on the Parts of the river 
which was verry rough, as I went down, was Smoothe on my 
return, This is owing to the rise and fall of the water, which 
takes place every day or two, and Caused by partial thaws, and 
obstructions in the passage of the water thro the Ice, which 
frequently attaches itself to the bottom, the water when rise- 
ing forses its way thro the cracks & air holes above the old ice, 
& in one night becomes a Smothe Surface of ice 4 to 6 Inchs 
thick, the River falls & the ice Sink in places with the water 
and attaches itself to the bottom, and when it again rises to its 
former hite, frequently leavs a Vallev of Several feet to Supply 
with water to bring it on a leavel Surfice. The water of the 
Missouri at this time is Clear with little tingue. 

I saw Several old Villages near the Chisscheter River on 
enquirey found they were Mandan Villages destroyed by the 
Sous & Small Pox, they [were] noumerous and lived in 6 [cj) 
Villages near that place. 

'+'* of February Thursday 1805. 

The Snow fell 3 inches Deep last Night, a fine morning, 
Despatched George Drewyer & 3 men, with two Slays drawn 
by 3 horses for the Meat left below. 

15','* of February Friday 1805 

at 10 oClock P M. last night the men that [were] despatched 
yesterday for the Meat, returned and informed us that as they 
were on their march down at the distance of about 24 miles 
below the Fort (G. Drevvver Frasure, S Gutterage, & Newmon ^ 
with a broken Gun), about 105 Indians which they took to be 
Soues rushed on them and cut their horses from the Slays, two 
of which they carried off in great hast, the 3'? horse was given 
up to the party by the intersetion of an Indian who assum'i 

1 These men were George Droiiillarii, Robert Frazier, Silas Goodrich, and John 
Newman. — Ed. 



Some authority on the occasion, probably more thro fear of 
himself or Some of the Indians being killed by our men who 
were not disposed to be Robed of all they had tamely, they 
also forced 2 of the mens knives & a tamahauk, the man 
obliged them to return the tamahawk [, but] the knives they 
ran off with 

We dispatched two men to inform the Mandans, and if any 
of them chose to pursue those robers, to come down in the 
morning, and join Cap' Lewis who intended to Set out with a 
party of men Verry early, by 12 oClock the Chief of the i".* 
Village Big White came down, and Soon after one other Chief 
and Several men. The Chief observed that all the young men 
of the 2 Villages were out hunting, and but verry fiew guns 
were left. Cap' Lewis Set out at Sunrise with 24 men, to 
meet those Soues &c. Several Indians accompanied him Some 
with Bows & arrows Some with Spears & Battle axes, 2 with 
fuzees {fusils)} the morning fine The Thermometer Stood 
at 16? below o. Nought, visited by 2 of the Big Bellies this 
evening, one Chief of the Mandans returned from Cap' 
Lewises Party nearly blind, this Complaint is as I am inform'! 
Common at this Season of the year and caused by the reflection 
of the Sun on the ice & Snow, it is cured by "jentilley swet- 
ting the part aflFected, by throwing Snow on a hot Stone." 

a Verry Cold part of the night one man Killed a verry 
large Red Fox to day. 

i6'f; of February SatturJay 1S05 

a fine morning, visited by but fiew Indians to day, at 
Dusk two of the Indians who wint down with Cap! Lewis 
returned, Soon after two others and one man (Howard) with 
his feet frosted, and informed that the Ind! who Commited the 
roberry of the 2 horses was So far a head that they could not 
be overtaken, they left a number of pars of Mockersons 
which, the Mandans knew to be Soues Mockersons, This 
war party camped verry near the last Camp I made when on 
my hunting party, where they left Some Corn, as a deception, 
with a view to induce a belief that they were Ricarras. 

^ Flint-lock muskets. — Ed. 



Cap- Lewis & party proceeded on down the meat I left at 
my last Camp was taken. 

17'.'! of February Sunday 1805 

this morning worm cV a httle Cloudy, the Coal & his Son 
visited me to day with a about 30"" of dri[e]d BufFalow meat 
& borne Tallow Mf M! Kinsey one of the NW Comp^' 
Clerks visited me (one of the ho[r]ses the Sous robed a fiew 
Days past, belonged to this man) The after part of the dav 
rair. •' 

18"; of February Monday 1805 

a cloudy morning Some Snow, Several Indians here to day 
M: NT Kinsey leave me, the after part of the dav fine lam 
much engaged makeing a descriptive List of the 'Rivers from 
Information ' our Store of Meat is out to day. 

>9'" of February Tuesday 1805 

a fine Day visited by Several of the Mandans to day 
our Smiths are much engaged mending and makeing Axes for 
the Indians tor which we get Corn 

lo':* February Wednesday 1S05 

a Butifull Day, visited by the Little raven verry early this 
mornmng I am informed of the Death of an old man whome 
I saw in the Mandan Village this man, informed me that he 
"was 120 winters old, he requested his grand Children to 
Dress him after Death & Set him on a Stone on a hill with his 
face towards his old Village or Down the river, that he might 
go Streight to his brother at their old village under ground " ^' 
I observed S everal Mandans verry old chiefly men^ 

» See "Scientific Data : Summary Statement of Rivers" — Clark's draft : especiallv 
the mtormation collected during winter of ,804-05 of streams above Fort Mandan 
nowmg mto the Missouri Ed. 

•^ Referring to the myth of their tribal origin, as having come from an under- 
ground region. For a minute account of this belief, written from the recital made bv 
a prommem Mandan, see Prince Maximilian's Voyage, ii, pp. 431 -+36 — Ed 

» Whose robust exercises fortify the body, while the laborious occupations' of the 
women shorten their existence. — Biddle (i, p. 163). 



2 Iff February Thursday 1S05 

a Delightfull Day put out our Clothes to Sun. Visited by 
the big White & Big Man they informed me that Several 
men of their nation was gone to Consult their Medison Stone 
about 3 day march to the South West to know what was to be 
the result of the ensuing year. They have great confidence in 
this stone, and say that it informs them of every thing which 
is to happen, & visit it everry Spring & Sometimes in the 
Summer. "They haveing arrived at the Stone give it smoke 
and proceed to the Wood at Some distance to Sleep the next 
morning return to the Stone, and find marks white & raised 
on the stone representing the peece or War which they are to 
meet with, and other changes, which they are to meet" This 
Stone has a leavel Surface of about 20 feet in Surcumtrance, 
thick and porus," and no doubt has Some mineral quallites 
effected by the Sun.' 

The Big Bellies have a Stone to which they ascribe nearly 
the Same Virtues 

Cap' Lewis returned with 2 Slays loaded with meat, after 
finding that he could not overtake the Soues War party, (who 
had in their way distroyed all the meat at one Deposit which I 
had made & Burnt the Lodges) deturmined to proceed on to 
the lower Deposit which he found had not been observed by 
the Soues he hunted two day Killed "T^d Deer & 14 Elk, 
Several of them so meager, that thev were unfit for use, the 
meet which he killed and that in the lower Deposit amounting 
to about 3000'.*! was brought up on two Slays one Drawn by 
16 men had about 2400'^ on it 

ii'"' of February Friday 1805. 

a Cloudy morning, about 12 oClock it began to rain, and 
Continud for a fiew minite, and turned to Snow, and Con- 

1 See descriptions of this "medicine stone," and of the ceremonies with which the 
Indians invoked the spirit supposed to dwell there, in Long's Expedition, i, pp. 273, 
274 ; and Maximilian's Voyage, ii, pp. 459, 460. Both the Mandan and Mini- 
taree were accustomed to consult these oracles ; Matthews says of the latter {Ethnog. 
Hidatsa, p. 51) : "The Hidatsa now seldom refer to it, and I do not think they ever 
visit it." — Ed. 


i8o5] AT I'ORI" MAN DAN 

tinud Snowing for about one hour, and Cleared away fair 
The two hunters left below arrived, they killed two Elk, and 
hung them up out of reach of the Wolves. The Coal a 
Ricara who is a considarable Chief of the Mandans Visited 
us to day, and maney others of the three nations in our 

^Z"! of February 1805 Satlurday 

All hands employed in Cutting the Perogues Loose from 
the ice, which was nearly even with their top ; we found great 
dificuelty in effecting this work owing to the Different devi- 
sions of Ice & water, after Cutting as much as we Could with 
axes, we had all the Iron we Could get, & some axes put on 
long poles and picked through the ice, under the first water, 
which was not more the [than] 6 or 8 inches Deep, we dis- 
engaged one Perogue, and nearly disengaged the 2".'' in Course 
of this day which has been worm & pleasent vis'ed by a No 
of Indians, Jessomme & famiiey went to the Shoe Indians 
Villag to day 

The father of the Boy whose feet were frosed near this place, 
and nearly Cured by us, took him home in a Slay. 

24'* February Sunday 1805 

The Day fine, we Commenced very early to day the Cut- 
ting loose the boat which was more dificuelt than the Perogus 
with great exertions and with the assistance of Great prises we 
lousened her, and turned the Second perogue upon the ice, 
ready to Draw out, in lousening the boat from the ice Some 
of the Corking drew out which Caused her to Leake for a fiew 
minits untill we Descovered the Leake & Stoped it. Jessomme 
our interpeter & famiiey returned from the Villages Several 
Indians visit us to day 

25'* of February Monday 1805 

We fixed a Windlass and Drew up the two Perogues on the 

upper bank, and attempted the Boat, but the Roap, which we 

hade made of Elk skins proved too weak & broke Several 

times, night Comeing on obliged us to leave her in a Situation 

[ 265 ] 


but little advanced. We were visited by the Black moclcerson 
Chief of the little Village of the Big Bellies, the Chief of the 
Shoe Ind! and a number of others those Chiefs gave us Some 
meat which they packed on their wives, and one requested a 
ax to be made for his Sun, M' (Root) Bunch, one of the under 
traders for the hudsons Bay Company, one of the Big Bellies 
asked leave for himself & his two wives to Stay all night, which 
was granted, also two Boys Stayed all night, one the Sun of 
the Black Cat. 

The Day has been exceedingly pleasent 

26'" February Tuesday 1805 

a fine Day Commenced verry early in makeing prepara- 
tions for drawing up the Boat on the bank, at Sunset by 
Repeated exertions the whole day, we accomplished this 
troublesom task, just as we were fixed for hauling the Boat, 
the ice gave way near us for about lOO yd' in length, a number 
of Indians here to day to See the Boat rise on the Bank. 

•^7n' of February li'eJiiesday 1805 

a find day, preparing the Tools to make perogues all day. 
a fiew Indians Visit us to day, one the largest Indian 1 ever 
Saw, & as large a man as ever I saw, I commence a Map of 
the Countrey on the Missouries & its water &c. &c. — 

28','/ of February Thursday 1S05 

a fine morning two men of the NW Comp'' arrive with letters 
and Sackacomah,' also a Root and top of a plant, presented by 
M' Haney, for the Cure of Mad Dogs Snakes &c. and to be 
found & used as follows viz : " this root is found on the high 
lands and asent of hills, the way of useing it is to scarify the 
part when bitten to chu or pound an inch or more if the root 
is Small, and applying it to the bitten part renewing it twice a 

' Probably a corrupt form of sacacommis, a name applied to the bear-berry [Arc- 
tostaphylos), of which the Indians eat the berry, and often use the bark in preparing the 
smoking-mixture called kinnikinick. — Ed. 



Day. the bitten person is not to chaw nor Swallow any of the 
Root for it might have contrary effect." ' 

Sent out 1 6 men to make four Perogus those men re- 
turned in the evening and informed that they found trees they 
thought would answer. 

M; Gravelin two frenchmen & two Ind' arrive from the 
Ricara Nation with Letters from M' Anty Tabeaux, informing 
us of the peeceable dispositions of that nation towards the 
Mandans & Me ne ta rees &c their avowed intentions of pur- 
sueing our councils &i advice, they express a wish to visit the 
Mandans, & [to] know if it will be agreeable to them to admit 
the Recaras to Settle near them and join them against their 
Common Enemey the Soues We mentioned this to the man- 
dans, who observed they had always wished to be at peace and 
good neighbours with the Ricaras, and it is also the Sentiments 
of all the Big bellies, & Shoe nations 

Mr. Gravelen informs that the Sisetoons and the 3 upper 
bands of the Tetons, with the Yanktons of the North intend to 
come to war in a Short time against the nations in this quarter, 
& will kill everry white man they See. M.' T. also informs 
that M[ Cameron^ of S' Peters has put arms into the hands of 
the Soues to revenge the death of 3 of his men killed by the 
Chipaways latterley, and that the Band of tetons which we 
Saw is desposed to doe as we have advised them, thro the 
influence of their Chief the Black Buffalow. 

M' Gravelen further informs that the Party which Robed 
us of the 2 horses laterlv were all Sieoux 106 in number, thev 
Called at the Recaras on their return, the Recares being des- 
pleased at their Conduct would not give them any thing to 
eate, that being the greatest insult they Could peaceably offer 
them, and upbraded them. 

' Cf. Marquette's account of a similar remedv {'Jes. Relations, lix, p. loi) and 
note thereon (p. 308). Coues mentions (/,. and C, i, pp. 238, 239), several plants 
which have in frontier tradition the reputation of curing snake-bites ; but he adds, 
" Everj'body knows the plant, except the botanists." Although unable to identify it, 
he thinks that there is some basis of fact for so universal a belief. See fiiller descrip- 
tion of this plant, post, in " Scientific Data : Botany." — Ed. 

- Murdoch Cameron, a trader whose headquarters were on St. Peter's (now Min- 
nesota) River ; he was accused of selling liquor to the Indians. He became wealthy 
iu the Indian trade, and died in 181 1. See Coues" s ExpeJ. Pike, i, p. 66. — Ed 


March I " Friciaj 1805 

a fine Day I am ingaged in Copying a Map,* men build- 
ing perogus, makeing Ropes, Burning Coal, Hanging up meat 
& makeing battle axes for Corn 

I"'' of March 1805 Satturday — 

a fine Day the river brake up in places all engaged about 
Something M' LaRocque a Clerk of the NW Company visit 
us, he has latterlev returned from the Establishments on the 
Assinniboin River, with Merchindize to tarade with Indians. 
M' L informs us the N.W. &: XY'"^ Companies have joined, 
& the head of the N.W, C? is Dead M^ Mf Tavish of Montreal, 
visited by the Coal & Several Indians. 

■^'^ of March Sunday 1805 

a fine Day Wind from the NW, a large flock of Ducks 
pass up the River visited by the black Cat, Chief of the 
Mandans 2'! Chief and a Big Belley, they Stayed but a Short 
time we informed those Chiefs of the news rec[e]ved from the 
Recaras, all hands employd. 

4''; March Monday 1805 Fort Mandan 

a cloudy morning wind from the NW the after part of the 
day Clear, visited by the Black Cat & Big white, who 
brought a Small present of meat, an Engage of the NW Co : 
Came for a horse, and requested in the name of the woman of 
the principal of his Department some Silk of three Colours, 
which we furnished. The Assinniboins who visited the 
Mandans a fiew days ago, returned and attempted to take 
horses of the Minetarees & were fired on by them. 

1 The several maps made by Clark during the expedition will be found either in 
the various text volumes of this series, or in the accompanying atlas. — Ed. 

^ Regarding the North West Company, see p. 206, note i, ante. The X Y 
Company (also known as New Northwest Company) was formed in 1795, ^Y Mof" 
treal merchants who seceded from the North West Company, mainly on account of 
the arbitrary acts of its chief, Simon McTavish ; his death (July, 1804) led to the 
union of the two companies, on the 5th of November following. See Bryce's Hist. 
H. B. Co. pp. 147-153. The agreement of Nov. 5 is given by Masson {Bourg. 
N.-O., ii, pp. 482-499). — Ed. 

[ 268 ]. 


5'* March Tuesday 1805 

A fine Day, Thermometer at 40 above o. Several Indians 
Visit us to day one frenchman Cross to join a Indian, the 
two to pass through by Land to the Ricaras with a Letter to 
M' Tabbow 

6^* of March IfCiineielay 1805 

a cloudy morning & Smokey all Day from the burning of 
the plains, which was set on fire by the Minetarries for an 
early crop of Grass, as an enducement for the Buffalow to feed 
on, the horses which was Stolen Some time ago by the Assin- 
niboins from the Menetarries were returned yesterday. Visited 
by Oh-harh or the Little fox 2? Chief of the lower Village of 
the Menetarrees. one man Shannon Cut his foot with the 
ads [adze] in working at the perogue, George & Gravelene 
go to the Village, the river rise a little to day. 

7f'' of March Thursday 1805 

a little cloudy and windey, NE. the Coal Visited us with a 
Sick child, to whome I gave Some of rushes ' pills. Shabounar 
returned this evening from the Gross Ventres & informed that 
all the nation had returned from the hunting he (our Mene- 
tarre interpeter) had received a present from M! Chaboillez of 
the N.W. Company of the following articles 3 Brace -' of Cloth 

1 Brace of Scarlet a par Corduroy overalls i Vests i Brace Blu 
Cloth, I Brace red or Scorlet with 3 bars, 200 balls &: Powder, 

2 brac[e]s Tobacco, 3 Knives. 

S'f; of March Friday 1805 

a fair Morning cold and windey, wind from the East, 
visited by the Greesey head & a Ricara to day, those men 
gave Some account of the Indians r>ear the rockey Mountains 

a young Indian {Minetarre) same nation & different village, 

1 Probably referring to Dr. Benjamin Rush, of Philadelphia, one of the most noted 
physicians of his day (i 745-1 813). — Ed. 

2 A phonetic rendering of "brasse," a French measure commonly used in Canada, 
and equivalent to 5.318 English feet. Scarlet cloth was especially valued by the 
Indians. — Ed. 



Stole the Doughter of the Black man {Mandan), he went 
to his village took his horse & returned & took away his 
doughter ' 

i)'^' of March Satturday 1805 

a Cloudy Cold and windev morning wind from the North. 
I walked up to See the Party that is makeing Perogues, about 
5 miles above this, the wind hard and Cold on my way up I 
met the {The Borgne) Main Chief of the Ma ne tar res, w-ith 
four Indians on their way to see us, [see note of g March after 
lo'*" Mar i8o§), I requested him to proceed on to the fort, 
where he would find Cap' Lewis I should be there myself in 
corse of a fiew hours. Sent the interpiter back with him 
and proceeded on myself to the Canoes found them nearly 
fin [i] shed, the timber verry bad (i^a x), after visiting all the 
perogues where I found a number of Indians, I wind [went] 
to the upper mandan Village & Smoked a pipe (the greatest 
mark of friendship and attention) with the Chief and returned, 
on my return found the Manetarree Chief about Setting out 
on his return to his Village, having recived of Captain M. 
Lewis a Medel Gorget armban[d]s, a Flag Shirt, scarlet &c. 
&c. &c. for which he was much pleased, those things were 
given in place of Sundery articles Sent to him which he Sais he 
did not receive, i guns were fired for this Great man." 

I o';'; of March Sunday 1805. 

a cold winday Day, we are visited by the Black Mocker- 
sons, Chief of the 2? Minetarre Village and the Chief of the 
Shoeman Village {Shoe or Mocassin Tr :) or Mah ha ha V. 
{IVattassoans) those Chiefs Stayed all day and the latter all 
night, and gave us man[y] Strang[e] accounts of his nation &c. 

1 More clearly worded by Biddle (i, p. 169), thus: "The father went to the 
village and found his danighter, whom he brought home, and took with him a horse 
belonging to the offender" — this last by way of reprisal, according to Indian custom, 
which is practically law among them. — Ed. 

2 This chief had lost an eye, hence his nickname of Le Borgne ("the one-eyed "). 
Biddle inserts several curious incidents illustrating the character of this chief, who was 
unusually ferocious and unscrupulous. See Brackenridge, Journal oj a Voyage up 
the Ri-ver Missouri (Baltimore, 1816), p. 261, for an account of Le Borgne. — Ed. 

[ 270 ] 


this Little tribe or band of Me ne tar rees (call themselves Ah- 
nah-ha-way or people whose Village is on the Hill. [Insert 
this Ahnahaway is the nation Mahhaha the village) this little 
nation formerley lived about 30 miles below this, but beeing 
oppressed by the Assinniboins & Sous were Compelled to 
move near (5 miles) the Menetarees, where, the Assinniboins 
killed the most of them, those remaining built a village verry 
near to the Menetarries at the mouth of Knife R where they 
now live, and Can raise about 50 men, they are intermixed 
with the Mandans & Menatarries. the Mandans formerly 
lived in 6 {nine) large Villages at and above the mouth oi Chis- 
cheter or Heart River four {Six) Villages on the West Side (of 
the Missouri) &c two (three) on the East one of those Villages 
on the East Side of the Missouri & the larges[t] was entirely 
Cut off by the Seaux & the greater part of the other and the 
Small Pox reduced the others. 

11'/' of March Monday 1805 

A Cloud V Cold windey day, Some Snow in the latter part 
of the dav, we deturmin to have two other Perogus made for 
to transport our Provisions &c. 

V^'^e have every reason to believe that our Menetarre inter- 
peter (whome we intended to take with his wife, as an inter- 
peter through his wife to the Snake Indians of which nation 
She is) has been Corrupted by the [blank in MS] Company 
&c. Some explenation has taken place which Clearly proves 
to us the fact, we give him to night to reflect and deturmin 
whether or not he intends to go with us under the regulations 


a fine day Some Snow last night our Interpeter Shabonah, 
deturmins on not proceeding with us as an interpeter under 
the terms mentioned yesterday, he will not agree to work let 
our Situation, be what it may nor Stand a guard, and if miffed 
with any man he wishes to return when he pleases, also have 
the disposal of as much provisions as he Chuses to Carrv in 
admissable and we Suffer him to be off the engagement which 
was onlv virbal Wind NW 



13'* of March JVednesday 1805 

a fine day visited by Mf M': Kinzey one of the Clerks of 
the NW. Companey, the river riseing a little. Maney Ind! 
here to day all anxiety for war axes the Smiths have not an 
hour of Idle time to Spear wind SW. 

14'* March Thursday 1805. — 

a fine day Set all hands to Shelling Corn &c. M: M' Kin- 
sey leave us to day Many Indians as usial. wind west river 
Still riseing. 

15'f; of March Friday 1805 — 

a fine day I put out all the goods, & Parch[ed] meal 
Clothing &c to Sun, a number of Indians here to day they 
make maney remarks respecting our goods &c. Set Some 
men about Hulling Corn &c. 

16';; of March Satturday 1805 — 

a cloudy day wind from the S.E. one Indian much dis- 
pleased with white-house for Strikeing his hand when eating, 
with a Spoon for behaving badly. M' Garrow show's us the 
way the recaras made their large Beeds. 

[[Lewis :3 ' 

M' Garrow a Frenchman who has lived many years with 
the Ricares & Mandans shewed us the process used by those 
Indians to make beads, the discovery of this art these nations 
are said to have derived from the Snake Indians who have 
been taken prisoners by the Ricaras. the art is kept a secret 
by the Indians among themselves and is yet known to but few 
of them, the Prosess is as follows. Take glass of as many 
different colours as you think proper, then pound it as fine as 
possible, puting each colour in a seperate vessel, wash the 
pounded Glass in severtal waters throwing oif the water at 

' This entry, written by Lewis under date of March 16, is in the MS. inserted 
after the entry for March 21, — Ed. 

[ 272 ] 







each washing, continue this opperation as long as the pounded 
glass stains or colours the water which is poured off and the 
residuum is then prepared for uce. you then provide an 
earthen pot of convenient size say of three gallons which will 
stand the fire; a platter also of the same material sufficiently 
small to be admitted in the mouth of the pot or jar. the pot 
has a nitch in it's edge through which to watch the beads when 
in blast. You then provide some well seasoned clay with a 
proportion of sand sufficient to prevent it's becoming very 
hard when exposed to the heat, this clay must be tempered 
with water untill it is about the consistency of common doe. 
of this clay you then prepare, a sufficient number of little 
sticks of the size you wish the hole through the bead, which 
you do by roling the clay on the palm of the hand with your 
finger, this done put those sticks of clay on the platter and 
expose them to a red heat for a few minutes when you take 
them off and suffer them to cool, the pot is also heated to 
cles [cleanse] it perfectly of any filth it may contain, small 
balls of clay are also mad[e] of about an ounce weight which 
serve each as a pedestal for a bead, these while soft ar des- 
tnbuted over the face of the platter at su[c]h distance from 
each other as to prevent the beads from touching, some little 
wooden paddles are now provided from three to four inches in 
length sharpened or brought to a point at the extremity of the 
handle, with this paddle you place in the palm of the hand 
as much of the wet pounded glass as is necessary to make the 
bead of the size you wish it. it is then arranged with the 
paddle in an oblong from [form], laying one of those little 
stick of clay crosswise over it ; the pounded glass by means of 
the paddle is then roped in cilindrical form arround the stick 
of clay and gently roled by motion of the hand backwards an 
forwards untill you get it as regular and smooth as you con- 
veniently can. if you wish to introduce any other colour you 
now purforate the surface of the bead with the pointed end of 
your little paddle and fill up the cavity with other pounded 
glass of the colour you wish forming the whole as regular as 
you can. a hole is now made in the center of the little ped- 
estals of clay with the handle of your shovel sufficiently large 
vm.,.-,8 j3_3j 


to admit the end of the stick of clay arround which the bead is 
formed, the beads are then arranged perpendicularly on their 
pedestals and little distance above them supported by the little 
sticks of clay to which they are attatched in the manner before 
mentioned, thus arranged the platter is deposited on burning 
coals or hot embers and the pot reversed with the apparture in 
its edge turned towards covers the whole, dry wood pretty 
much doated {doughtedy is then plased arron [around] the pot 
in sush manner as compleativ to cover it [It] is then set on 
fire and the opperator must shortly after begin to watch his 
beads through the apparture of the pot le[s]t they should be 
distroyed by being over heated, he suffers the beads to 
acquire a deepred heat from which when it passes in a small 
degree to a pailer or whitish red, or he discovers that the beads 
begin to become pointed at their upper extremities he removes 
the fire from about the pot and suffers the whole to cool grad- 
ually, the pot is then removed and the beads taken out. the 
clay which fills the hollow of the beads is picked out with an 
awl or nedle. the bead is then fit for uce. The Indians are 
extreemly fond of the large beads formed by this process, 
they use them as pendants to their years, or hair and some- 
times wear them about their necks." 

QClark :] 17'f; of March Sunday — 

a windey Day attempted to air our goods &c. M' 
Chabonah Sent a frenchman of our party [to say] that he 
was Sorry for the foolish part he had acted and if we pleased 
he would accompany us agreeabley to the terms we had per- 
posed and doe every thing we wished him to doe &c. &c. he 

1 A variant of "doted," which Century Dictionary regards as an English pro- 
vincialism; it means "decayed," or "rotted." Coues states that he had heard 
this word in North Carolina, applied to trees dead at the top, also to lumber prepared 
from unsoimd trees. — Ed. 

- Catlin also mentions this manufacture of glass beads by the Mandans, and their 
exclusive possession of the art (N. Amer. Inds.y ii, p. 261). But Matthews says that 
the Arilcara women also have it ; he thinks that these peoples made " glazed earthen 
ornaments before the whites came among them " (Hidatsa, pp. 22, 23). — Ed. 

[ 274 ] 


had requested me Some thro our French inturpeter two days 
ago to excuse his Simplicity and take him into the cirvice, 
after he had taken his things across the River we called him in 
and Spoke to him on the Subject, he agreed to our tirms and 
we agreed that he might go on with us 6cc. tkc. but fiew 
Indians here to day, the river riseing a little and Severall 
places open. 

1 8'* of March 1805 — 

a Cold Cloudy Day wind from the N. I pack up all the 
Merchendize into 8 packs equally divided So as to have Some- 
thing of every thing in each Canoe & perogue I am informed 
of a Party of Christanoes & Assinniboins being killed bv the 
Sioux, 50 in Number near the Establishments on the Assinni- 
boin R. a fiew days ago (the effect of M' Cammerons revenge 
on the Chipaways for killing 3 of his men) M[ Tousent 
Chabono [Toussaint Charboneau], Enlisted as Interpreter this 
evening, I am not well to dav. 

1 9'* of March 1805 — 

Cold winder Day Cloudy Some little Snow last night 
visited to Day by the big white & Little Crow, also a man & 
his wife with a Sick Child, I administer for the child We are 
told that two parties are gone to war from the Big bellies and 
one other party going to war Shortly. 

20'/' March H'ednesdat 1805. 

I with all the men which could be Speared from the Fort 
went to Canoes, there I found a number of Indians, the 
men carried 4 to the River about 1 .} miles thro' the Bottom, 
I visited the Chief of the Mandans in the Course of the Day 
and Smoked a pipe with himself and Several old men. Cloudy 
wind hard from N. 

t 275 ] 


2iff Mflrr/; 'Thursday 1805 — 

a Cloudy Day Some Snow, the men Carried the remaining 
Canoes to the River, and all except 3 left to take care & com- 
plete the Canoes returned to the fort with their baggage, on 
mv return to dav to the Fort I came on the points of the high 
hills. Saw an emence quantity ot Pumice Stone on the Sides 
& foot of the hills and emence beds of Pumice Stone near the 
Tops of the[m], with evident marks of the Hills haveing once 
been on fire, I Collected Some [of] the different [sorts] i. e. 
Stone Pumice Stone & a hard earth, and put them into a 
furnace, the hard earth melted and glazed the others two and 
the hard Clay became a pumice Stone Glazed. I collected 
Some plants &c. 



C H A P T li R V I I 


Clark's Journal, March zi— April 27, 1X05 
Lewis's Journal, April 7-27 


23 (-'-' mistake) of March Friday 1805 

A CLOUDY Day visited by M" La[ro]ck, M.^Kinsey' 
& the il- Chief of the Big bellies, the white wolf and 
many other Minataries, we Gave a Medal Some 
Uothes and vvampom to the 2[nd] Chief and Delivered a 
Speach, which they ail appeared well pleased with in the even- 
ing the men Danced M: Jessomme displeased 

24'* {23) of March Satturday 1805 — 

after Brackfast M^ La Rocke and M: i\rKinsey and the 
Cheifs & men of the Minetarras leave us. Soon after we were 
Visited by a Brother of the Burnia {of the Borgne, or one eyed 
chief of the Menitarees) who gave us a Vocabularv of 'his 
Language.^ the Coal & many other Mandans also visit us to 
day a find Day in the fore part in the evening a little rain 
& the first this winter. 

> Mr. LaRocqueandl . . , became imimate with the gemlemen of the American 
exp dmon who on all occasions seemed happy to see us, and always treated us with 
c.v,hty and kindness. It .s true, Captain Lewis could not make himself agreeable ,0 
us. He could speak fluently and learnedly on all subjects, but his inveterate dis- 
pos„,on agams. the British stained, at least in our eyes, all his eloquence. Captain 
Clarke was equally well informed, but his conversation was always pleasant, for he 
seemed to d.shke g.ving offence unnecessarily. _ .Mackenzie (Masson's Bourg 
N.-O., 1, p. 336). *■ * 

' ^' 'he Indians could not well comprehend the intention of recording their words 
they concluded the Americans had a wicked design upon thei; country. 1 
Mackenzie (a/ supra, p. 337). 

[ 277 ] 


■2.$"' {34",l) of March Sunday 1805. — 

a Cloudy morning wind from the NE the after part of the 
Day fair, Sev^eral Indians visit us to day, prepareing to Set 
out on our journey, Saw Swans & Wild Gees flying N.E. 
this evening. 

**" (^5'*) of March Monday 1805 — 

a fine Day wind S.W. but fiew Ind' Visit us to day the Ice 
haveing broken up in Several places, The ice began to brake 
away this evening and was near destroying our Canoes as they 
were dec[e]nding to the fort, river rose only 9 Inches to day 
prepareing to Depart. 

27'* (i>(5) of March Tuesday 1805 — 

The river choked up with ice opposit to us and broke away 
in the evening raised only Yi Inch all employed prepareing 
to Set out. 

i8"! (-';-) of March Friday (H'ednesJay) 1805 — 

a windey Blustering Day Wind S W ice running the [ice] 
Blocked up in view for the Space of 4 hours and gave way 
leaveing great quantity of ice on the Shallow Sand bars, had 
all the Canoes corked [calked] pitched & tined in and on the 
cracks and windshake which is universiallv in the Cotton wood. 

29'* {2S) of March Satturday {Thursday) 1805 — 

The ice has stoped running owing to Som obstickle above, 
repare the Boat & Perogues, and prepareing to Set out but 
few Indians visit us to day they are now attending on the 
river bank to Catch the floating Buffalow 

30": {20) of March Sunday {Friday) 1805 — 

The obstickle broke away above & the ice came down in 

great quantities the river rose 13 inches the last 24 hours I 

observed extrodanary dexterity of the Indians in jumping from 

one cake of ice to another, for the purpose of Catching the 

[ 278 ] 


bufFalow as they float down ' many of the cakes of ice which 
they pass over are not two feet square. The Plains are on fire 
in View of the fort on both Sides of the River, it is Said to be 
common for the Indians to burn the Plains near their Villages 
every Spring for the benefit of their hors[e]s, (^«) and to 
induce the Bufl'alow to come near to them. 

31 •: (JO'') SaturJiiy. of March Monday (SalurJaj) (Sunday) 1805 — 

{Ser. Ordway now here) Cloudy Day Sever[al] Gangs of 
Gees and Ducks pass up the river, but a Small portion of 
ice floating down to day, but fiew Ind* Visit us to day all 
the party in high Sperits they pass but fiew nights without 
amuseing themselves danceing possessing perfect harmony and 
good understanding towards each other. Generally helthy 
except Venerials Complaints which is verry Common amongst 
the natives (^^(.) and the men Catch it from them 

April the 1/ Tuesday (Monday) 1805 — 

The fore part ot to day haile rain with Thunder & light- 
ning, the rain continued by intimitions all day, it is worthev 
of remark that this is the i*' rain which has fallen Sence we 
have been here or Sence the 1 5 of October last, except a fiew 
drops at two or three defferent times, had the Boat Perogues 
& Canoes all put into the Water. 

April the i",^ Friday (Tuesday) 1805 — 

a cloudy dav, rained all the last night we are prepareing to 
Set out all thing nearly ready. The 2!" Chief of the 2^ Mandan 
Village took a miff at our not attending to him perticularly 
after being here about ten days and moved back to his village. 

The Mandans Killed twenty one elk yesterday 15 miles 
below this, they were So Meager that they [were] Scercely 
fit for use. 

^ Biddle describes the manner in which the Indians capture buffaloes which, try- 
ing to cross the river, have become isolated on ice-floes. Mackenzie («/ supra, p. 337) 
states that the Indians on the Missouri also search eagerly for the carcasses of buffaloes 
and other drowned animals that float down the river in the spring season ; these, 
although rotten and of intolerable stench, "are preferred by the Natives to any other 
kind of food. ... So fond are the Mandanes of putrid meat that they bury animals 
whole in the winter for the consumption of the spring " — Ed. 

[ -'79 1 


April the 37' Thursday (if^ednesday) 1805 — 

a white frost this morning, Some ice on the edge of the 
water, a fine dav Pack up and prepare to load 

observed equal altitudes of the Q with Sextant and artificial horizen 

A.M. 7 H. - 51 m - 15.S. P.M. 5 h. - I m. - 22 s. 

" - 52 - 52.5 5-3 - 3 

" - 54 - 30 " - 5 - 41 

altitude produc'd from this observation is 36° - 31" - 15". Chroriom- 
iter too fast 32 minits 

observed Time and Distance of O? & 5? nearest limbs with the 
Sextant and Chronomiter — Sun west. 

Time Distance 

PM. 5 H. - 15 M. - 50 S. 43? - 27' - 15" 

" - 18 - 24 " - 30 - o 

" - 20 - 5 " - 30 - 30 

" - 31 - 29 " - 34 - o 

" - 36 - 47 " - 36 - 30 

" - 39 - 7 " - 37 - 15 
" - 40 - 55 " - 37 - 30 

M" La Rocke & M'Kinsey Clerk to the N W. Compr Visit 
us. M.' M'Kinzev wishes to Get pay for his horse lost in 
our Service this Winter and one of which our men were robed 
this winter by the Tetons, we Shall pay this man for his 
horse, we are all dav engaged packing up Sundery articles 
to be sent to the President of the U.S.' 

Box N? I, contains the following articles i. e. 

In package N° 3 & 4 Male & female antelope, with their Skelitons. 

1 Some of the articles were long on exhibition at Monticello. Others passed to 
Peak's museum in Philadelphia, and there some of the specimens are still to be found. 
See note by Witmer Stone, on " Zoology of the Lewis and Clark Expedition," in 
"Scientific Data : Zoology," Vol. vi of the present work. — Ed. 


N"? 7 & 9 the horns of two mule or Black tailed deer, a Mandan how 
an[d| quiver of arrows — with some Recara's tobacco seed. 

N° 1 1 a Martin Skin, Containing the tail of a Mule Deer, a weasel 
and three Squirels from the Rockey mountains. 

N- 12, The bones & Skeleton of a Small burrowing wolf of the 
Praries the Skin being lost by accedent. 

K- 99. The Skeliton of the white and Grey hare. 

Box N? 2, Contains 4 Buffalow Roh.>, and a ear of Mandan Corn. 

The large Trunk Contains a male c^ female Braro or burrowing dog 
of the Praire and the female's Skeliton. 

a carrote of Ricaras Tobacco 

a red fox Skin Containing a Magpie 

N° 14 Minitarras Burtalow robe Containing Some articles of Indian 

N? 15 a mandan robe containing two burrowing Squirels, a white 
weasel :ind the Skin of a Loucirvia. also 

13 red fox Skins. 

I white Hare Skin &c. 

4 horns of the mountain ram 

I Robe representing a battle between the Sioux & Ricaras against 
the Minctares and Mandans. 

In Box N° 3. 

No? I & 2 the Skins of the Male & female Antelope with their Skel- 
etons. & the Skin of a Yellow Bear which I obtained from the Sieoux 

N- 4. Box. Specimens of plants numbered from 1. to 67. 

Specimens of Plants numbered from 1 to 60. 

I Earthen pot Such as the Mandans manufacture and use for culinary- 

I Tin box containing insects mice &c. 

a Specimine of the fur of the antilope. 

a Specimen of a plant, and a parcel of its roots higly prized by the na- 
tives as an efficatious remidy in cases of the bite of the rattle Snake or 
Mad Dog. 

1 Catlin says {N. Amer. Inds., pp. 260, 261) that specimens of the pottery taken 
fr6m the burial mounds in Ohio "were to be seen in great numbers in the use of the 

•■»..»- '.^ i/v- o<_»-ij 111 gicai iiuiiiucr^ in tne use or tnc 

Mandans ; and scarcely a day in the summer, when the visitor to their village would 

not see the women at work with their hands and fingers, moulding them from black 

_i 1 ^j^^ ^^j ^.. 

the river." 

[281 ] 

..V,. ov^ .„>. „u,„t„ ai worK Willi tneir nanus and hngers, moulding them from black 
clay, into vases, cups, pitchers, and pots, and baking them in their little kilns in the 
sides of the hill, or under the bank of the river." — Ed. 


In a large Trunk ^ 

Skins of a male and female Braro, or burrowing Dog of the Prarie, 
with the Skeleton of the female. 

1 Skin of the red fox Containing a Magpie 

2 Cased Skins of the white hare. 

I Minitarra Buffalow robe Containing Some articles of Indian 

I Mandan Buffalow robe Containing a dressed Lousirva Skin, and 
2 cased Skins of the Burrowing Squirel of the Praries. 

13 red fox Skins 

4 Horns of the Mountain Ram, or big horn. 

1 BufFalow robe painted by a mandan man representing a battle 
fought 8 years Since by the Sioux & Recaras against the mandans, 
menitarras & Ah wah har ways. (Mandans &c. on horseback 

Cage N° 6. 

Contains a liveing burrowing Squirel of the praries 

Cage N° 7. 

Contains 4 liveing Magpies 

Cage N° 9. 

Containing a liveing hen of the Prairie 
a large par of Elks horns containing \_contained., i. e., held together — 
Ed.] by the frontal bone. 

April the 4": 1805 IfeJnesday {Thursday) — 

a blustering windey Day the Clerks of the N W Co. leave 
us, we are arrangeingall things to Set out. &c. 

April the 5'^' 1S05 Thursday [Friday) — 

we have our i perogues & Six Canoes loaded with our Stores 
& provisions, principally provisions, the wind verry high from 
the NW. a number of Mandans Visit us to day " 

1 Repetition of the contents of " the large trunk," mentioned above. — Ed. 
* Gass here mentions the prevalence of licentiousness among the Indians on the 
Missouri. — Ed. 



April the (>"• Friday {Satturday) 1805 — 

a fine day visited by a number of Mandans, we are in- 
formed of the arrival of the whole of the recarra nation on the 
other Side of the river near their old village, we Sent an 
interpreter to see with orders to return imediately and let us 
know if their Chiefs ment to go down to See their great father. 

QLewis:] Fort Man Jan April jt/i. 1805.' 

Having on this day at 4. P.M. completed every arrangement 
necessary for our departure, we dismissed the barge and crew 
with orders to return without loss of time to St. Louis, a small 
canoe with two French hunters accompanyed the barge ; these 
men had assended the missouri with us the last year as engages.'* 
The barge crew consisted of six soldiers and two [blank space 
in MS.] Frenchmen; two Frenchmen and a Ricara Indian also 
take their passage in her as far as the Ricara Vilages, at which 
place we expect Mr. Tiebeau [Tabeau] to embark with his 
peltry who in that case will make an addition of two, perhaps 
four men to the crew of the barge. We gave Richard Warf- 
ington, a discharged Corp'., the charge of the Barge and crew, 
and confided to his care likewise our dispatches to the govern- 
ment, letters to our private friends, and a number of articles 
to the President the United States.^ One of the Frenchmen 
by the Name of {Joseph) Gravline an honest discrete man and 
an excellent boat-man is imployed to conduct the barge as 
a pilot; we have therefore every hope that the barge and with 
her our dispatches will arrive safe at S''. Louis. Mr. Gravlin 

' At this point begins Codex D, which is entirely in Lewis's handwriting, and 
continues the journal of the expedition until May 23, 1805. — Ed. 

- These were Francjois Rivet and Philippe Degie, whom the explorers met on their 
return journey Aug. 21, 1806. Mrs. E. E. Dye writes to us that they afterwards 
went to Oregon and settled in Cl'ampoeg, and were locally celebrated as being men 
who had been with Lewis and Clark. — Ed. 

' Coues (i. and C, i, pp. 253-260) gives in his notes on this entrv all the infor- 
rrvation he could gather regarding the personnel of the party which left Fort Mandan to 
continue the transcontinental explorations ; he also cites a letter by Lewis, which ex- 
plains how Corporal Warfington came to be retained on the muster-roll after his term 
of service had expired. He was the only one of the party returning to St. Louis whom 
Lewis could entrust with his despatches to the government, and his commander praises 
his fidelity. — Ed. 



who speaks the Ricara language extreemly well, has been im- 
ployed to conduct a few of the Recara Chiefs to the seat of 
government who have promised us to decend in the barge to 
S': Liwis with that view. 

At same moment that the Barge departed from Fort Man- 
dan, Capt. Clark emba[r]ked with our party and proceeded up 
the River, as I had used no exercise for several weeks, I 
determined to walk on shore as far as our encampment ot this 
evening; accordingly I continued my walk on the N. side of 
the River about six miles, to the upper Village of the Mandans, 
and called on the Black Cat or Pose-cop'-se-ha', the great chief 
of the Mandans ; he was not at home ; I rested myself a [few] 
minutes, and finding that the party had not arrived I returned 
about 2 miles and joined them at their encampment on the N. 
side of the river opposite the lower Mandan village. Our 
part[y] now consisted of the following Individuals. Serg". 
John Ordway, Nathaniel Prior, & Patric Gass ; Privates, Wil- 
liam Bratton, John Colter, Reubin, and Joseph Fields, John 
Shields, George Gibson, George Shannon, John Potts, John 
Collins, Joseph Whitehouse, Richard Windsor, Alexander 
Willard, Hugh Hall, Silas Goodrich, Robert Frazier, Peter 
Crouzatt, John Baptiest la Page, Francis Labiech, Hue M^.Neal, 
William Warner, Thomas P. Howard, Peter Wiser, and John 
B. Thompson. Interpreters, George Drewyer and Tauasant 
Charbono also a Black man by the name of York, servant 
to Capt. Clark, an Indian Woman wife to Charbono with a 
young child, and a Mandan man who had promised us to 
accompany us as far as the Snake Indians with a view to bring 
about a good understanding and friendly intercourse between 
that nation and his own, the Minetares and Ahwahharways. 

Our vessels consisted of six small canoes, and two large 
perogues. This little fleet altho' not quite so rispectable as 
those of Columbus or Capt. Cook, were still viewed by us 
with as much pleasure as those deservedly famed adventurers 
ever beheld theirs ; and I dare say with quite as much anxiety 
for their safety and preservation, we were now about to pene- 
trate a country at least two thousand miles in width, on which 
the foot of civilized man had never trodden ; the good or evil 
[ 284 ] 


It had in store for us was for experiment yet to determine, and 
these little vessells contained every article by which we were 
to expect to subsist or defend ourselves. however, as the 
state of mind in which we are, generally gives the colouring to 
events, when the immagination is suffered to wander into 
futurity, the picture which now presented itself to me was a 
most pleasing one. enterta[in]ing as I do, the most confident 
hope of succeeding in a voyage which had formed a da[r]ling 
project of mine for the last ten years, I could but esteem this 
moment of my departure as among the most happy of my life. 
The party are in excellent health and sperits, zealously attached 
to the enterprise, and anxious to proceed ; not a whisper of 
murmur or discontent to be heard among them, but all act in 
unison, and with the most perfict harmony. I took an early 
supper this evening and went to bed. Capt. Clark myself the 
two Interpretters and the woman and child sleep in a tent of 
dressed skins, this tent is in the Indian stile, formed of a 
number of dressed Buffaloe skins sewed together with sinues.' 
It is cut in such manner that when foalded double it forms the 
quarter of a circle, and is left open at one side here it may be 
attatched or loosened at pleasure (^a) by strings which' are 
sewed to its sides for the purpose, to erect this tent, a parsel 
of ten or twelve poles are provided, fore or five of which are 
attatched together at one end, they are then elivated and their 
lower extremities are spread in a circular manner to a width 
proportionate to the demention of the lodge; in the same 
position orther poles are leant against those, and the leather is 
then thrown over them forming a conic figure. 

l^'*'''' •] f. of April SatturJay [SunJay] 1805 2 — 

a windey day. The Interpreter we Sent to the Villages re- 
turned with Chief of the Ricara's & j men of that nation, 

> Citlin enumerates {N. Amer. InJs., i, p. 262) the many uses made by the Indians 
of the burtalo in their domestic economy — for food, clothing, implements, weapons, 
etc. — Ed. 

- We obtain Clark's journal from April 7-July 3, 1805 (except where otherwise 
noted) from Clarlc-Voorhis note-book No. i ; save that the first Clark entry of 
Aprd 7 is from Codex C of the Philadelphia collection. — Ed. 


this Chief informed us that he was Sent by his nation to know 
the despositions of the nations in this neighbourhood in re- 
spect to the recara's Settleing near them, that he had not yet 
made those arrangements, he request that we would speelc to 
the Assinniboin, & Crow Ind! in their favour, that they wished 
to follow our directions and be at peace with all, he viewed 
all nations in this quarter well disposed except the Sioux. The 
wish of those recaras appears to be a junction with the Mandans 
& Minetarras in a Defensive war with the Sioux who rob them 
of every Spece [species] of property in Such a manner that 
they cannot live near them any longer. I told this Chief we 
were glad to See him, and we viewed his nation as the Dutifull 
Children of a Great father who would extend his protection to 
all those who would open their ears to his good advice, we 
had already Spoken to the Assinniboins, and should Speeke to 
the Crow Indians if we should see them &c. as to the Sioux 
their Great father would not let them have any more good 
Guns &c. would take care to prosu Such measurs as would 
provent those Sioux from Murd[er]ing and taking the property 
from his dutyfuU red Children &c. we gave him a certificate 
of his good Conduct & a Small Medal, a Carrot of Tobacco 
and a String of Wompom. he requested that one of his men 
who was lame might decend in the boat to their nation and 
returned to the Mandans well Satisfied. The name of this 
Chief of War is Kah-kah, We-to Raven brave. This Cheif 
delivered us a letter from M' Taboe. informing us of the wish 
of the Grand Chiefs of the Recarras to visit their Great 
father and requesting the privolage of put'g on board the 
boat 3000"! of Skins &c. & adding 4 hands and himself to the 
party, this preposeal we Shall agree to, as that addition will 
make the party in the boat 15 Strong and more able to de- 
fend themselves from the Seoux &c.^ 

1 Here ends the daily record kept by Clark, as contained in Codex C. The rest 
of the codex is occupied with matter outside of that record, which will be found in 
"Scientific Data." Towards the close of the codex is Clark's sketch map of the Red 
and St. Peter's Rivers, herewith reproduced. — Ed. 


Red and St. Peter's Rivers, 
sketch-plan by Clark. 


^Clark :] Fori ManJan April ;* 7^* 1805 

Sunday, at 4 oClock PM, the Boat, in which was 6 Soldiers 2 
frenchmen ik an Indian, all under the command of a corporal 
who had the charge of dispatches, fi^c. — and a canoe with 2 
french men, Set out down the river for S! Louis, at the same 
time we Sout out on our voyage up the river in 2 perogues 
and 6 canoes, and preceded on to the i" villag. of Mandans 6c 
camped on the S.S. our party consisting of Serg' Nathaniel 
Pryor Sg! John Ordway. Sg" Pat: Gass, William Bratten, John 
Colter Joseph & Reuben Fields. John Shields George Gibson 
George Shannon, John Potts, John Collins, Jos: Whitehouse, 
Richard Windser, Alexander Willard, Hugh Hall, Silas Gutrich, 
Robert Frazure, Peter Crouzat, John Baptiest la page, Francis 
Labich, Hugh NT Neal, William W^arner, Thomas P. Howard, 
Peter Wiser, J. B. Thompson and my servent york, George 
Drew yer who acts as a hunter & interpreter, Shabonah and 
his Indian Squar to act as an Interpreter & interpretress for the 
snake Indians — one Mandan & Shabonahs infant. Sah-kah- 
gar we a 

[Lewis:] April 8"*. 

Set out early this morning, the wind blew hard against us, 
from the N.W. we therefore traveled very slowly. I walked 
on shore, and visited the black Cat, took leave of him after 
smoking a pipe as is their custom, and then proceeded on 
slowly by land about four miles where I wated the arrival of 
the party, at 12 Oclock they came up and informed me that 
one of the small canoes was behind in distress. Cap-. Clark 
returned fou[n]d she had filled with water and all her loading 
wet. we lost half a bag of bisquit, and about thirty pounds 
of powder by this accedent ; the powder we regard as a serious 
loss, but we spread it to dry immediately and hope we shall 
still be enabled to restdre the greater part of it. this was the 
only powder we had which was not perfectly secure from get- 
ing wet. we took dinner at this place, and then proceed on 
to oure encampment, which was on the N. side opposite to 
a high bluff." the Mandan man came up after we had en- 

1 Near the present Hancock, N. D. — Ed. 


camped and brought with him a woman who was extreemly 
solicitous to accompany one of the men of our party, this 
however we positively refused to permit. 

Courses distances and references for Ap'. 8"". 

From the upper point on an island (being the point to which Capt. 
Clark took his last course when he assended the river in surch of a 
place for winter quarters i" November last) to a point of wood land 
Star'd side, passing a high bluff on the Lar'd. N^o° . IF. j'j^. 

[^Clark:] %'!', of April Monday 1805 

Set out very early wind hard a head from the N.W. pro- 
ceeded on passed all the villages the inhabitants of which 
flocked down in great numbers to view us, I took my leave 
of the great Chief of the Mandans who gave me a par of ex- 
cellent mockersons, one canoe filed with water every thing in 
her got wet ^3 of a barrel of powder lost by this accident. 

From the upper part of an island just below Marpar-" 
perycopatoo's camp to a point of wood land on the 
Sta"! side passing a high bluff on the La'? containing 
many horizontal narrow stratas of Carbonate wood, 
some of which are sixty feet above the su [r] face of 
the water 

N. 40? W. 3^ 

Camped on the S.S. opsf a high bluff, an Indian Joined us, 
also an Indian woman with a view to accompany us, the 
woman was Sent back the man being acquainted with the 
countrey we allowed him to accompanie us 

[^Lewis :] TuesJny April 9''' 

Set out as early as it was possible to see this morning and 
proceed about five miles where we halted and took beakfas 
the Indian man who had promised us to accompany us as far 
as the Snake Indians, now informed us of his intention to re- 
linquish the journey, and accordingly returned to his village, 
we saw a great number of brant passing up the river, some 


of them were white, except the large feathers in the first and 
second joint of the wing which are black, there is no other 
difterence between them and the common gray brant but that 
of their colour their note and habits are the same, and they 
are freequently seen to associate together. 1 have not yet 
positively determined whether they are the same, or a different 
species. Capt Clark walked on shore to-day' and informed 
me on his return, that passing through the prarie he had seen 
an anamal that precisely resembled the burrowing squrril, ac- 
cept in point of size, it being only about one third as large 
as the squirrel, and that it also burrows. I have observed in 
many parts of the plains and praries, the work of an anamal 
ot which I could never obtain a view, their work resembles 
that of the salamander common to the sand hills of the States 
of South Carolina and Georgia, and like that anamal also it 
never appears above the ground, the little hillocks which 
are thrown up by these anamals have much the appearance 
of ten or twelve pounds of loose earth poared out of a vessel 
on the surface of the plain, in the state they leave them you 
can discover no whole through which they throw out this 
earth ; but by removing the loose earth gently you may dis- 
cover that the soil has been broken in a circle manner for 
about an inch and a half in diameter; where it appears looser 
than the adjacent surface, and is certainly the place through 
which the earth has been thrown out, tho' the operation is 
performed without leaving any visible aperture, the Bluffs 
of the river which we passed today were upwards of a hun- 
dred feet high, formed of a mixture of yellow clay and sand — 
many horizontal stratas of carbonated wood, having every ap- 
pearance of pitcoal at a distance; were seen in the the face of 
these bluffs, these stratas are of unequal thicknesses from i to 
5 feet, and appear at different elivations above the water some 
ot them as much as eighty feet.- the hills of the river are very 
broken, and many of them have the apearance of having been 

» That Lewis occupied himself with writing his journal is evidenced by the entry 
in his weather diary for this date (Codex Fe, p. 4) : " The perogue is so unsteady 
that I can scarcely write." — Ed. 

- The so-called " coal " near Fort Mandan was lignite, extensive beds of which 
exist in that region. — Ed. 

^"■-■'■-'s [289] 


on fire at some former period, considerable quantities of 
pumice stone and lava appear in many parts of these hills 
where they are broken and washed Down by the rain and 
melting snow, when we halted for dinner the squaw busied 
herself in serching for the wild artichokes which the mice ' 
collect and deposit in large hoards, this operation she per- 
formed by penetrating the earth with a sharp stick about some 
small collections of drift wood, her labour soon proved suc- 
cessful, and she procured a good quantity of these roots, the 
flavor of this root resembles that of the Jerusalem Artichoke, 
and the stalk of the weed which produces it is also similar, 
tho' both the root and stalk are much smaller than the Jeru- 
salem Artichoke, the root is white and of an ovate form, 
from one to three inches in length and usually about the size 
of a man's finger, one stalk produces from two to four, and 
somitimes six of these roots. 

at the distance of 6 miles passed a large wintering or hunt- 
ing camp of the Minetares on the Star'' side, these lodges 
about thirty in number are built of earth and timber in their 
usual stile. 2j miles higher we passed the entrance of Miry 
Creek, which discharges itself on the Star'* side, this creek is 
but small, takes it's rise in some small lakes near the Mouse 
river and passes in it's course to the Missouri, through beati- 
full, level, and fertile plains, intirely destitute of timber. 
Three miles above the mouth of this creek we passed a hunt- 
ing camp of Minetares who had prepared a park and were 
wating the return of the Antelope ; which usually pass the 
Missouri at this season of the year from the Black hills on 
the South side, to the open plains on the north side of the 
river; in like manner the Antelope repasses the Missouri from 
N. to South in the latter end of Autumn, and winter in the 
black hills, where there is considerable bodies of woodland, 
we proceed on ii^ miles further and encamped on the N. side 
in a most beatifull high extensive open bottom.^ 

' Probably gophers ; Coues thinks that the burrowing animal just described by 
Lewis is the pouched rat or pocket-gopher (either Geomys or Thomomys). — Ed. 
* Not far above the present Fort Stevenson. — Ed. 

[ 290 ] 


The courses and distances of this day are as follow 

No ¥ir (1 A miles 

. 20- W. to a StaH point opposte to a bluff i 

N. to a Star'' point d° d° d" i/ 

N. 80. E. to a sand point on Lar'' side 1 1/ 

N. to a Lar*" point 1/ 

N. 18. W. to a handsome elivatcd plain on Lar'' S'' i 

N. 22. E. to a point of willows on Lar'' side opposit 1 

to a wintering camp of the Minetares / *^ 
N. 20. VV. to the mouth of Miry creek Star' side, passing a small 

run and a hill called snake den 2"/ 

W. to a point on Lar"* side 1 
S. 75 VV". to a point on Star'' opposite to a camp of Minetares, and 

lower po.' of a high bluff , 

N. 65. VV. to the upper point point of woo[d]land on Sf! s'! 3 

S. 45. VV. to a point of timber on the Lar^ side 2 

S. 30. VV^ to a sand point on the Star! side 11/ 

S. 78. VV. to a point of woodland on the Lar'' side 4 

CClark:] 5/4 of April Tuesday 1805. — 

Set out this morning verry early under a gentle breeze from 
the S.E. at Brackfast the Indian deturmined to return to his 
nation. I saw a Musquetor to day great numbers of Brant 
flying up the river, the Maple, ^: Elm has buded & cotton 
and arrow wood beginning to bud. I saw in the prarie an 
animal resembling the Prarie dog or Barking Squirel & bur- 
row in the same way, this animal was about '3 as large as the 
barking Squirel. But fiew resident birds or water fowls which 
I have Seen as yet at 6 miles passed an old hunting camp of 
IVIenitarres on the S. S. 2^ miles higher passed the mouth 
of Miry Creek on the S.S. passed a hunting camp of Mene- 
tarees on the S.S. waiting the return of the Antilope, Saw 
Great numbers of Gees feedin in the Praries on the young 
grass, I saw flowers in the praries to day, juniper grows on 
the Sides of the hills, & runs on the ground all the hills 
"have more or Less indefl^erent coal in stratas at different hites 
from the waters edge to 80 feet, those stratias from i inch to 
5 teet thick we camp'! on the S.S. above some rocks makeing 
out in the river in a butifull ellivated plain. 


Course distance & refferences for the g'"" 

N. 20° W. 1 mile on the S. p' ops'! a Bluif 

N - - - 1/^ a mile on the S. p' d". 

N. 8o° E I 1/2 miles to a sand p' on the L.S. 

N. Yz a mile to the L. p' 

N. 1 8° W. I mile to a handsom elivated plain on L.S. 

N. 22? E iVz miles to a p! of willows on the L.S. opposit a Win- 
tering camp of the Minitarrees. 

N. 20? W. 2V( miles to the mouth of Miry Creek, pass'd a hill call[ed] 
Snake house & a small run S.S. 

West 1 mile to a p' on the Larboard side 

S. 75? W. 4 miles to a p' on the S.S. ops'? a Bluff and a camp of 

N. 65° W. 3 miles to the upper part of the timber S.S. 

S. 45° W. 2 miles to a p! of timber on the L.S. 

S. 30. W. I i^ miles to a Sand p' on the S.S. 

S. 78° W. 4 miles to a p' of wood on the L.S. 

["Lewis n IVeJnesJay April 10"' 1805. 

Set out at an early hour this morning, at the distance of 
three miles passed some Minetares who had assembled them- 
selves on the Lard [larboard] shore to take a view of our little 
fleet. Capt Clark walked on shore to-day, for several hours, 
when he returned he informed me that he had seen a gang of 
Antelopes in the plains but was unable to get a shoot at them, 
he also saw some geese and swan, the geese are now feeding 
in considerable numbers on the young grass which has sprung 
up in the bottom praries. the Musquetoes were very trouble- 
some to us to-day. The country on both sides of the mis- 
souri from the tops of the river hills, is one continued level 
fertile plain as far as the eye can reach, in which there is not 
even a solitary tree or shrub to be seen, except such as from 
their moist situations or the steep declivities of hills are shel- 
tered from the ravages of the fire, at the distance of 12 miles 
from our encampment of last night we arrived at the lower 
point of a bluff on the Lard side; about x^i miles down this 
bluff from this point, the bluff is now on fire and throws out 
considerable quantities of smoke which has a strong sul- 
[ 292 ] 

lit » 


phurious smell, the appearance of the coal in the blufs con- 
tinues as yesterday.' at i. P.M. we overtook three french 
hunters who had set out a few days before us with a view 
of traping beaver; they had taken I2 since they left Fort 
Mandan. these people avail themselves ot the protection 
which our numbers will enable us to give them against the 
Assinniboins who sometimes hunt on the Missouri ; and 
intend ascending with us as f;ir as the mouth of the Yellow 
stone river and continue there hunt up that river, this is the 
first essay of a beaver hunter of any discription on this river, 
the beaver these people have already taken is by far the best I 
have ever seen, the river bottoms we have passed to-day are 
wider and possess more timber than usual, the courant of the 
Missouri is but moderate, at least not greater than that of 
the Ohio in high tide ; it's banks are falling in but little; the 
navigation is therefore comparitively with it's lower portion 
easy and safe, we encamped this evening on a willow point, 
Star'! side just above a remarkable bend in the river to the 
S.W. which we called the little bason." 

Cou[r]ses and distances of this day. 


S. 45. W. to a point of timbered land on the S- Si^ 3 

W. to a point of timbered land on the Laf^ s^ 3 

S. 72. VV. to a tree in a bend on the Star^ side 2 

S. 32. W. to a point of woods on the Star'' side 4 

VV. 1)11 the Star^ point "/^ 

N. 40. VV. on the Star') point ^ 

N. 50. E. to a point on the Ivar") side, opposite to a low bluff 2 
S. 52. VV. to a point on the Star.' side opposite to a bluf, above 

which a small creek falls in. 3^ 


1 This region " is tlie fringe of the well-known mawvaises terres [' Bad Lands'] 
to the south, through the heart of which the Little Missouri flows. . . . The coun- 
try is underlaid with vast beds of lignite coal, which has burned out over wide areas. 
. . . Coal veins form lines plainly distinguishable in the hills bordering the river, 
and . . . some of these veins are [even now] burning, and emit sulphurous odors." 
— Olin D. Wheeler. 

^ Not far from the site of Fort Berthold, built by the American Fur Company in 
1845. The name was transferred (i86i) to another post, buih in the Indian village. 
Both structures were finally destroyed by fire — the former in 1S62, the latter in 

1874 Ed. 



[Clark:] lo'/; of April IVedneiJay 1805 

Set out verry early, the morning cool and no wind pro- 
ceeded on passed a camp of Ind' on the L.S. this day 
proved to be verry worm, the Misquetors troublesom. I saw 
Several antilope on the S.S. also gees & swan, we over took 
3 French men Trappers The countrey to day as usial except 
that the points of Timber is larger than below, the coal con- 
tinue to day, one man saw a hill on fire at no great distance 
from the river, we camped on the S.S. just above a remarkable 
bend in the river to the S W, which We call the little bason. 

Course Distance & refferences the 10"' 

miles to a p! of timbered land on the S.S. 

miles to a p! of timbered land on the L.S. 

miles to a tree in an elevated plain in the bend to the S. S. 

miles to a p! of wood on the S.S. 
y^ a mile on the S. point. 
i/< a mile on the S. point. 

miles to a p! on the L.S. ops'? a low bluff. 
y, miles to a p' on the S.S. ops'? a blutf above which a 
18 1/ small creek falls in 

[Lewis:] Thursday April \ith. 

Set out at an early hour; I proceeded with the party and 
Capt. Clark with George Drewyer walked on shore in order to 
procure some fresh meat if possible, we proceeded on abot 
five miles, and halted for breakfast, when Capt. Clark and 
Drewyer joined us ; the latter had killed, and brought with 
him a deer, which was at this moment excep[t]able, as we had 
had no fresh meat for several days, the country from fort 
Mandan to this place is so constantly hunted by the Mine- 
taries that there is but little game, we halted at two P.M. 
and made a comfortable dinner on a venison stake and beavers 
tales with the bisquit which got wet on the B"" ins', by the acci- 
dent of the canoe filling with water before mentioned, the 
powder which got wet by the same accedent, and which we had 
spread to dry on the baggage of the large perogue, was now 
examined and put up ; it appears to be almost restored, and 

S. 45- 





S 72° 



S. 32? 




N. 40? 


N. 50? 



S 52? 




our loss is therefore not so great as we had at first appre- 
hended, the country much the same as yesterday, on the 
sides of the hills and even the banks of the rivers and sand- 
bars, there is a white substance t[h]at appears in considerable 
quantities on the surface of the earth, which tastes like a 
mixture of common salt and glauber salts, many of the 
springs which flow from the base of the river hills are so 
strongly impregnated with this substance that the water is 
extreemly unpleasant to the taste and has a purgative effect.' 
saw some large white cranes pass up the river these are the 
largest bird ot that genus common to the country through 
which the Missouri and Mississippi pass, they are perfectly 
white except the large feathers of the two first joints of the 
wing which are black, we encamped this evening on the Star'! 
shore just above the point of woodland which formed to 
extremity of the last course of this day. there is a high bluff 
opposite to us, under which we saw some Indians, but the 
river is here so wide that we could not speake to them ; sup- 
pose them to be a hunting party of Minetares. we killed two 
gees to-day. 

The courses and distances of this day 

S. 85. W. to the upper point of a bluff on Lar'? S^ 3 

N. 38. VV. to a point on the Larl shore, oppo! a bluff 2 

S. 30. W. to the upper part of a timbered bottom on the Lar? 
side, a large sand bar making out from the Star") 
side I ^ miles wide 2 

N. 52. VV. to a red knob in a bend to the Sta'? side near the 

upper part of a timbered bottom 5 

S. 70. W. to a point of timbered land on the Star"" Sd. 6 

W. on the Star? point i 


1 The famous "alkali" of the West, often rendering the water undrinkable, and 
•covering great areas like snow. It consists largely or mainly of sulphate of soda. — Ed. 

[ -'95 ] 


[Clark:] >''.'' of April Thursday 1805. 

Set out verry early I walked on Shore, saw fresh bear 
tracks, one deer & 2 beaver killed this morning in the after 
part of the day killed two gees, saw great numbers of Gees 
Brant & Mallard Some White Cranes Swan & guls, the 
plains begin to have a green appearance, the hills on either 
side are from 5 to 7 miles asunder and in maney places have 
been burnt, appearing at a distance of a redish brown choler, 
containing Pumice Stone & lava, some of which rolin down to 
the base of those hills. In many of those hills forming bluffs 
to the river we prosieve Several Stratums of bituminious sub- 
stance which resembles coal\ thoug[h] Some of the pieces 
appear to be excellent coal, it resists the fire for some [time], 
and consumes without emiting much flaim. 

The plains are high and rich some of them are sandy con- 
taining small pebbles, and on some of the hill Sides large 
Stones are to be seen. In the evening late we observed a 
party of Menetarras on the L.S. with horses and dogs loaded 
going down, those are a part of the Minitarras who camped 
a little above this with the Ossinniboins at the mouth of the 
little Missouri all the latter part of the winter, we camped on 
the S.S. below a falling in bank, the river raise a little. 

Course distance &c. the 11'.'' 

S. 85° W. 2 miles to the upper part of a Bluff" in a bend to the Lar- 
board Side. 

N. 38° W. 3 miles to a point on the L.S. ops^ a bluff. 

S. 30° W. 2 miles to the upper part of a timbered bottom on the L.S. 
a large sand bar makeing out from the S.S. il mi'.' 

N 52° W. 5 miles to a red knob in a bend to the S.S. near the upper 
part of wood bottom. 

S. 70° W. 6 miles to a timbered point on the S.S. 

West I mile on the S. point. 

[^Lewis :] Friday April the 12"' 1805 

Set out at an early hour, our peroge and the Canoes 
passed over to the Lard side, in order to avoid a bank which 
was rappidly falling in on the Starl the red perogue contrary 


to my expectation or wish passed under this bank by means 
ot her toe line ; where I expected to have seen her carried 
under every instant. I did not discover that she was about to 
make this attempt untiil it was too late for the men to re- 
embark, and retreating is more dangerous than proceeding in 
such cases; they therefore continued their passage up this 
bank, and much to my satisfaction arrived safe above it. this 
cost me some moments of uneasiness, her cargo was of much 
importance to us in our present advanced situation. We pro- 
ceeded on six miles and came too on the lower side of the 
entrance of the little Missouri on the Lard shore in a fine 
plain where we determined to spend the dav for the pur- 
pose ot celestial observation, we sent out lo hunters to 
procure some fresh meat, at this place made the following 

Point of Observation N° I. 
Observed O' Magnetic Azimuth with Circumfer" S. 88^ E. 

Time bv Chronometer A.M. 

Altitude by Sextant .... 

O's Magnetic Azimuth by Circumferenter 

Time by Chronometer 

Altitude by Sextant .... 

8. 20. 25. 

52°. 20'. 45". 

S. 87°. E. 

S\ 25'. 22". 

53°- 55'- 3°"- 

Observed equal altitudes of the O with Sextant. 

b m s 

A.M. 8. 30. II. P.M. the P.M. observation 

". 31. 52. 5 was lost in consequence 

". 33. 31. of the Clouds. 

Alt'? by Sextant at the time of observation . 55'. 28'. 45". 
Observed Meridian altitude of the O' U. L. 

with Octant by the back observation . 81°. 25'. 15". 

Latitude deduced from this observation [blank space in MS.] 


The artifi' Horizon recommended bv M' A. EUicott, in which water 
forms the reflecting surface, is used in all observations which requirs the 
the uce of an Artiticial horizon, except when expresslv mentioned to 
the contrary. 

The altitude of any object in the fore observation as here entered is 



that deduced immediately from the graduated limb of the instrument, 
and is of course the double altitudes of the object observed. 

The altitudes of objects observed by the back observation, with Octant 
as here entered, is that shewn by the graduated limb of the Instrument 
at the time of observation, and is the compliment of 180° of the double 
altitude of the object observed. 

Error of Sextant — Subtractive -. 8'. 45". 

Error of Octant fore observation — 2° -. ".x 

Error of d° in back observation add'" 2° 40'. - .x 
The night proved so cloudy that I could make no further observations. 

George Drewyer shot a Beaver this morning, which we found 
swiming in the river a small distance below the entrance of the 
little Missouri, the beaver being seen in the day, is a proof 
that they have been but little hunted, as they always keep 
themselves closly concealed during the day where they are so. 
found a great quantity of small onions in the plain where we 
encamped ; had some of them collected and cooked, found 
them agreeable, the bulb grows single, is of an oval form, 
white, and about the size of a small bullet; the leaf resem- 
[bles] that of the shive, and the hunters returned this ev[en]- 
ing with one deer only, the country about the mouth of this 
river had been recently hunted by the Minetares, and the little 
game which they had not killed and frightened away, was so 
extreemly shy that the hunters could not get in shoot of them. 
The little Missouri disembogues on the S. side of the 
Missouri 1693 miles from the confluence of the latter with 
the Mississippi, it is 134 yards wide at it's mouth, and sets in 
with a bould current but it's greatest debth is not more than i^A 
feet, it's navigation is extreemly difficult, owing to it's rapid- 
ity, shoals and sand bars it may however be navigated with 
small canoes a considerable distance, this river passes through 
the Nothern extremity of the black hills where it is very narrow 
and rapid and it's banks high an[d] perpendicular, it takes it's 
rise in a broken countrv West of the Black hills with the waters 
of the yellow stone river, and a considerable distance S.W. of the 
point at which it passes the black hills, the country through 
which it passes is generally broken and the highlands possess 
but little timber, there is some timber in it's bottom lands, 


which consists of Cottonwood red Elm, with a small propor- 
tion of small Ash and box alder, the under brush is willow, 
red wood, (sometimes called red or swamp willow') the red 
burry, and Choke cherry the country is extreamly broken 
about the mouth of this river, and as far up on both sides, as 
we could observe it from the tops of some elivated hills, which 
stand betwcn these two rivers, about j miles from their junc- 
tion, the soil appears fertile and deep, it consists generally of a 
dark rich loam intermixed with a small proportion of fine sand, 
this river in it's course passes near the N.W. side of the turtle 
mountain, which is said to be no more than 4 or 5 leagues dis- 
tant trom it's entrance in a straight direction, a little to the S. 
of West, this mountain and the knife river have therefore 
been laid down too far S.W. the colour of the water, the bed 
of the river, and it's appearance in every respect, resembles the 
Missouri ; I am therefore induced to believe that the texture 
of the soil of the country in which it takes it's rise, and that 
through which it passes, is similar to the country through 
which the Missouri passes after leaving the woody country, or 
such as we are now in. on the side of a hill not distant from 
our camp I found some of the dwarf cedar of which I pre- 
served a specimen (See N° 2.) this plant spreads it's limbs 
alonge the surface of the earth, where they are sometimes 
covered, and always put forth a number of roots on the under 
side, while on the upper there are a great number of small 
shoots which with their leaves seldom rise higher than 6 or 
eight inches, they grow so close as perfectly to conceal the 
ea[r]th. it is an evergreen; the leaf is much more delicate 
than the common Cedar, and it's taste and smell the same. I 
have often thought that this plant would make very handsome 
edgings to the borders and walks of a garden; it' is quite as 
handsom as box, and would be much more easily propegated. 
the appearance of the glauber salts and Carbonated wood still 

Cou[r]sc and distance of this day was. 
N. 80° W. to the entrance of the little Missouri — 4"^ 

» This is not a willow, but a cornel {Corpus stolonifera) ; its bark is used in the 
preparation of kmnikinick. — En. 



[Clark ' ^'" ^P"^ ^"'^"y ' ^°S 

a fine morning Set out verry early, the murcury stood 
56° above °. proceeded on to the mouth of the Little Missouri 
river and formed a camp in a butifuU elivated plain on the 
lower side for the purpose of takeing Some observations to fix 
the Latitude & Longitude of this river, this river falls in on the 
L. Side and is 1J4 yards wide and 2 feet 6 Inches deep at 
the mouth, it takes its rise in the N W extremity of the black 
mountains, and [runs] through a broken countrey in its whole 
course washing the N W base of the Turtle Mountain which 
is Situated about 6 Leagues S W of its mouth, one of our 
men Baptiest who came down this river in a canoe informs me 
that it is not navagable, he was 45 days descending. 

One of out men Shot a beaver swimming below the mouth 
of this river. 

I walked out on the lower Side of this river and found the 
countrey hilley the soil composed of black mole & a small per- 
portion of sand containing great quantity of Small peable some 
limestone, black flint, & sand Stone 

I killed a Hare changeing its colour some parts retaining 
its long white fur & other parts assumeing the short grey, I 
saw the Magpie in pars, flocks of Grouse, the old field lark & 
crows, & observed the leaf of the wild chery half grown, 
many flowers are to be seen in the plains, remains of Mlne- 
tarra & Ossinneboin hunting camps are to be seen on each side 
of the two Missouris 

The wind blew verry hard from the S. all the after part of 
the day, at 3 oClock PM. it became violent & blowey ac- 
companied with thunder and a little rain. We examined our 
canoes &c found Several men which had already commenced 
cutting our bags of corn & parched meal, the water of the 
little Missouri is of the same texture colour & quallity of that 
of the Big Missouri the after part of the day so cloudy that 
we lost the evening observation. 

Course & Distance of the 1 1'!" 

N. 80° W. 41/ miles to tlie mouth of the Little Missouri River on 
the S.S. 

[ 300 ] 



[Lewis :] Saturday April i 3'* 

Being disappointed in my observations of yesterday for 
Longitude, 1 was unwilling to remain at the entrance of the 
river another day for that purpose, and therefore determined 
to set out early this morning; which we did accordingly; the 
wind was in our favour after 9 A.M. and continued favourable 
untill three 3. P. M. we therefore hoisted both the sails in the 
White Perogue, consisting of a small squar sail, and spritsail, 
which carried her at a pretty good gate, untill about 2 in the 
afternoon when a suddon squall of wind struck us and turned 
the perogue so much on the side as to allarm Sharbono who 
was steering at the time, in this state of alarm he threw the 
perogue with her side to the wind, when the spritsail gibing 
was as near overseting the perogue as it was possible to have 
missed, the wind however abating for an instant I ordered 
Drewyer to the helm and the sails to be taken in, which was 
instant[ly] executed and the perogue being steered before the 
wind was agin plased in a state of security, this accedent was 
very near costing us dearly, beleiving this vessell to be the 
most steady and safe, we had embarked on board of it our 
instruments. Papers, medicine and the most valuable part of 
the merchandize which we had still in reserve as presents for 
the Indians, we had also embarked on board ourselves, with 
three men who could not swim and the squaw with the young 
child, all of whom, had the perogue overset, would most prob- 
ably have perished, as the waves were high, and the perogue 
upwards of 200 yards from the nearest shore; however we 
fortunately escaped and pursued our journey under the square 
sail, which shortly after the accident I directed to be again 
hoisted, our party caught three beaver last evening; and the 
French hunters 7. as there was much appearance of beaver 
just above the entrance of the little Missouri these hunters 
concluded to remain some days, we therefore left them without 
the expectation of seeing them again, just above the entrance 
of the little Missouri the great Missouri is upwards of a mile 
in width, tho' immediately at the entrance of the former it is 
not more than 200 yards wide and so shallow that the canoes 
passed it with seting poles, at the distance of nine miles passed 


the mouth of a creek on the Star? side which we called onion 
creek from the quantity of wild onions which grow in the plains 
on it's borders. Capt. Clark who was on shore informed me 
that this creek was 16 yards wide a mile & a half above it's 
entrance, discharges more water than creeks of it's size usually 
do in this open country, and that there was not a stick of 
timber of any discription to be seen on it's borders, or the 
level plain country through which it passes, at the distance 
of 10 Miles further we passed the mouth of a large creek, dis- 
charging itself in the center of a deep bend, of this creek and 
the neighbouring country, Capt. Clark who was on shore gave 
me the following discription. " This creek I took to be a 
small river from it's size, and the quantity of water which it 
discharged; I ascended it i^ miles, and found it the discharge 
of a pond or small lake, which had the appearance of having 
formerly been the bed of the Missouri, several small streams 
discharge themselves into this lake, the country on both sides 
consists of beautifull level and elivated plains ; asscending as 
they recede from the Missouri ; there were a great number 
of Swan and gees in this lake and near it's borders I saw the 
remains of 43, temperary Indian lodges, which I presume were 
those of the Assinniboins who are now in the neighbourhood 
of the British establishments on the Assinniboin river" This 
lake and it's discharge we call goos Egg from the circumstance 
of Capt. Clark shooting a goose while on her nest in the top 
of a lofty cotton wood tree, from which we afterwards took one 
egg. the wild gees frequently build their nests in this manner, 
at least we have already found several in trees, nor have we as 
yet seen any on the ground, or sand bars where I had supposed 
from previous information that they most commonly deposited 
their eggs, saw some Buffaloe and Elk at a distance to-day 
but killed none of them, we found a number of carcases of 
the Buffaloe lying along shore, which had been drowned by 
falling through the ice in winter and lodged on shore by the 
high water when the river broke up about the first of this 
month, we saw also many tracks of the white bear of enor- 
mous size, along the river shore and about the carcases of 
the Buffaloe, on which I presume they feed, we have not 
[ 302 ] 


as yet seen one of these anamals, tho' their tracks are so 
abundant and recent. the men as well as ourselves are 
anxious to meet with some of these bear, the Indians give a 
very formidable account of the streng[t]h and ferocity of this 
anamal, which they never dare to attack but in parties of six 
eight or ten persons; and are even then frequently defeated 
with the loss of one or more of their party, the savages attack 
this anamal with their bows and arrows and the indifferent guns 
with which the traders furnish them, with these they shoot 
with such uncertainty and at so short a distance, that {unless 
shot thro head or heart wound not mortal) they frequently mis 
their aim & fall a sacrefice to the bear, two Minetaries were 
killed during the last winter in an attack on a white bear, this 
anamall is said more frequently to attack a man on meeting 
with him, than to flee from him. When the Indians are about 
to go in quest of the white bear, previous to their departure, 
they paint themselves and perform all those supersticious rights 
commonly observed when they are about to make war uppon 
a neighbouring nation. 0[b] served more bald eagles on this 
part of the Missouri than we have previously seen, saw the 
small hawk, frequently called the sparrow hawk, which is 
common to most parts of the U. States, great quantities of 
gees are seen feeding in the praries. saw a large flock of white 
brant or gees with black wings pass up the river; there were 
a number of gray brant with them ; from their flight I pre- 
sume they proceed much further still to the N.W. we have 
never been enabled yet to shoot one of these birds, and cannot 
therefore determine whether the gray brant found with the 
white, are their brude of the last year or whether they are the 
same with the grey brant common to the Mississippi and lower 
part of the Missouri, we killed 2 antelopes to-day which we 
found swiming from the S. to the N. side of the river; they 
were very poor. We encamped this evening on the Star:" shore 
m a beautifuU plain, elivated about :>,o feet above the river. 



The courses and distances of this day are as follow. 


N. 18° W. to a point of wood on the L. side, point on the Lar'? 

at I y, miles 7 yi 

N. 10. W. to the upper point of a Low bluft' on the Sta"? pass a 

creek on Star"? side. 5 

N. 45. W. to a point of Woodland on Lar'? side 4. 

N. 28. W. to a point of Woodland Star'' side 3. 

S. 35. W. to a point of Woodland on Sff side, passed a creek on 
Star'? side "near the commencement of this course 
also, two points on the Lar"! side, the one at a mile, 
and the other i^ a mile further, also a large sand 
bar in the river above the entrance of the creek 4. 

Note our encampment was one mile short of the extremity of the last 

course. — 

QClark:] n'* of April Sattuniay 1805 

Set out this morning at 6oClock., the Missouri above the 
mouth of Little Missouri widens to nearly a mile containing a 
number of Sand bars this width &c. of the River continues 
Generally as high as the Rochejhone River. Cought 3 beaver 
this morning, at 9 miles passed the mouth of a Creek on the 
S.S. on the banks of which there is an imense quantity of wild 
onions or garlick, I was up this Creek }4 a m[ile] and could 
not See one Stick of timber of any kind on its borders, this 
creek is 16 yds wide j4 a mile up it and discharges more water 
than is common for Creeks of its Size, at about 10 miles 
higher we pass a creek about 30 yards wide in a deep bend to 
the N W. This creek I took to be a Small river from its size 
& the quantity of water which it discharged, I assended it 
lyi miles and found it the discharge of a pond or Small Lake 
which has appearance of haveing been once the bead of the 
river. Some small streams discharge themselves into this 
Lake, the countery on both sides is butifull elevated plains 
assending in Some parts to a great distance near the aforesaid 
Lake (what we call Goose egg L from a circumstance of my 
shooting a goose on her neast on some sticks in the top of a 


high cotton wood tree in which there was one egg) We saw 
8 biirtalow at a distance which were verry wild, I saw near 
the Lake the remains of 4J lodges, which has latterly been 
abandoned I suppose them to have been Ossinniboins and 
now near the british establishments on the Ossinniboin River 
tradeing. we camped on the S.S. in a butifull Plain. I ob- 
serve more bald Eagles on this part of the Missouri than usial 
also a small Hawk Killed a Antelopes in the river to day. 

Course distance &^" the 13'.'' of April 1805 

N. 18° W -jy. miles to a point of wood on the L.S. passed a point 
on the L.S. at ly, miles 

N. 10° W. 5 miles to the upper point of a low bluff on the S.S. 
passed a creek on the S.S. ( i ) 

N. 45°. W. 4 miles to a point of woodland on L.S. 

N. 28° W. 3 miles to a point of woodland on S.S. the river make- 
ing a Deep bend to the N.W. 

S 35° W. 4 miles to a point of wood on the S. S. passed a creek (2) 

231^ on the S.S. near the commencement of this course, 

also two points on the L.S one at a mile & the 

other y^ a mile further, also a large sand bar in the 

middle of the river above the mouth of the creek 

emence numbers of Geese to be seen pared ik'. a Gange 
of brant pass one half of the gange white with black wings or 
the large feathers of the 1" & 21 joint the remd! of the 
com [mo] n col[o]r. a voice much like that of a goos & 
finer &c. 

^^^"''^0 Sunday /Ipril i4«' ,805. 

One of the hunters saw an Otter last evening and shot at it, 
but missed it. a dog came to us this morning, which we sup- 
posed to have been lost by the Indians who were recently 
encamped near the lake that we passed yesterday, the min- 
eral appearances of salts, coal and sulphur, together with birnt 
hills & pumice stone still continue, while we remained at the 
entrance of the little Missouri, we saw several pieces of pumice 
stone floating down that stream, a considerable quant[it]y of 

VO,...._20 [3^. J 


which had lodged against a point of drift wood a little above 
it's entrance. Capt. Clark walked on shore this morning, and 
on his return informed me that he had passed through the 
timbered bottoms on the N. side of the river, and had ex- 
tended his walk several miles back on the hills ; in the 
bottom lands he had met with several uninhabited Indian 
lodges built with the boughs of the Elm, and in the plains he 
met with the remains of two large encampments of a recent 
date, which from the appearance of some hoops of small kegs, 
seen near them we concluded that they must have been the 
camps of the Assinniboins, as no other nation who visit this 
part of the missouri ever indulge themselves with spirituous 
liquor, of this article the Assinniboins are pationately fond, 
and we are informed that it, forms their principal inducement 
to furnish the British establishments on the Assinniboin river 
with the dryed and pounded meat and grease which they do. 
they also supply those establishments with a small quantity of 
fur, consisting principally of the large and small wolves and 
the small fox' skins, these they barter for small kegs of rum 
which they generally transport to their camps at a distance 
from the establishments, where they revel with their friends 
and relations as long as they possess the means of intoxication, 
their women and children are equally indulged on those occa- 
tions and are all seen drunk together, so far is a state of 
intoxication from being a cause of reproach among them, that 
with the men, it is a matter of exultation that their skill and 
industry as hunters has enabled them to get drunk frequently, 
in their customs, habits and dispositions these people very 
much resemble the Siouxs from whom thev have descended. 
The principal inducement with the British fur companies, tor 
continuing their establishments on the Assinniboin river, is 
the Buffaloe meat and grease they procure from the Assinni- 
boins, and Christanoes, by means of which, they are enabled 
to supply provision to their engages on their return from 
rainy Lake to the English river and the Athabaskey country 
where thev winter ; without such resource those voyagers 

1 The kit fox {Vulpes njelo.x). — Ed. 


t-st-i. /fy.J^ 0^ 

^9-^ a.-^.*Ci lt,.A-«^ 'A*^^/ e-^^£.i^ ,t^ /:, ^i^a 
t/f.^f/hr. Cr^ ^ /^►t,*^*'^^ /»w.^>a<^-..'^ c^^i^ v^^ft. ^_ , "3-4. 

«2»^ ^?tA — 

^*/.. C^>^^ a-A-o.^^^ /tx^/tXc.1^ ^ ^^^{^^i^<-,y 

tv4= ^ 

<%»7*:fi*« -26 

'^l.^^i-^^ikS!^ V^^' ^8'/»r^. 

MS. Page, by Lewis, dated April i8, 1805. 


would frequently be straitened for provision, as the country 
through which they pass is but scantily supplyed with game, 
and the rappidity with which they are compelled to travel in 
order to reach their winter stations, would leave them but 
little leasure to surch for food while on their voyage. 

The Assinniboins have so recently left this neighbourhood, 
that the game is scarce and very shy. the river continues 
wide, and not more rapid than the Ohio in an averge state of 
it's current, the bottoms are wide and low, the moister parts 
containing some timber; the upland is extreemly broken, 
chonsisting of high gaulded nobs as far as the eye can reach 
on ether side, and entirely destitute of timber, on these hills 
many aromatic herbs are seen ; resembling in taste, smel and 
appearance, the sage, hysop, wormwood, southernwood,' and 
two other herbs which are strangers to me; the one resem- 
bling the camphor in taste and smell, rising to the hight of 2 
or J feet ; the other about the same size, has a long, narrow, 
smo[o]th, soft leaf of an agreeable smel and flavor; of this 
last the A[n]teIope is very fond; they feed on it, and perfume 
the hair of their foreheads and necks with it by rubing against 
It. the dwarf cedar and juniper is also found in great abun- 
dance on the sides of these hills, where the land is level, it is 
uniformly fertile consisting of a dark loam intermixed with a 
proportion of tine sand, it is generally covered with a short 
grass resembling very much the blue grass. the miniral 
appearances still continue ; considerable quantities of bitu- 
menous water, about the colour of strong lye trickles down the 
sides of the hills ; this water partakes of the taste of glauber 
salts and slightly of allumn. while the party halted to take 
dinner today Capt. Clark killed a buffaloe bull ; it was meagre, 
and we therefore took the marrow bones and a small propor- 
tion of the meat only, near the place we dined, on the Lard, 
side, there was a large village of burrowing squirrels. I have 
remarked that these anamals generally celect a South Easterly 
exposure for their residence, tho' they are sometimes found in 

1 Probably the common sage-brush {Artemisia tridentala), which Lewis is com- 
paring to all these garden herbs which he names. The identity of the two other 
plants is not plain. — Ed. 

[ 307 ] 


the level plains, passed an Island, above which two small 
creeks fall in on Lar"! side; the upper creek largest, which we 
called Sharbono's Creek, after our interpreter who encamped 
several weeks on it with a hunting party of Indians, this was 
the highest point to which any whiteman had ever ascended, 
except two Frenchmen {one of whom Lapage was now with us. 
See at Mandari) who having lost their way had straggled a few 
miles further, tho' to what place precisely I could not learn. ^ 
I walked on shore above this creek and killed an Elk, which 
was so poor that it was unfit for uce; I therefore left it, and 
joined the party at their encampment on the Star"! shore a little 
after dark, on my arrival Capt. Clark informed me that he 
had seen two white bear pass over the hills shortly after I 
fired, and that they appeared to run nearly from the place 
where I shot, the larl shore on which I walked was very 
broken, and the hills in many places had the appearance of 
having sliped down in masses of several acres of land in sur- 
face, we saw many gees feeding on the tender grass in the 
praries and several of their nests in the trees ; we have not in a 
single instance found the nest of this bird on or near the 
ground, we saw a number of Magpies their nests and eggs, 
their nests are built in trees and composed of small sticks 
leaves and grass, open at top, and much in the stile of the 
large blackbird comm to the U. 'States, the egg is of a bluish 
brown colour, freckled with redish brown spots, one of the 
party killed a large hooting owl ; I observed no difference 
between this bird and those of the same family common to the 
U. 'States, except that this appeared to be more booted and 
more thickly clad with feathers. 

' Lewis and Clark here distinctly state that they have now passed beyond the 
highest point on the Missouri heretofore explored by white men. Chaboneau had 
been as far as the creek named for him (probably Indian Creek of to-day), and 
Lepage, another recruit from the Mandan towns, had, with one other Frenchman, 
gone a few miles farther ; but beyond that they were entering virgin territory. This 
is important, for it shows that the quest for furs had not yet been pushed appreciably 
west of the Mandan villages by the British fur companies. — O. D. Wheeler. 





The courses and distances of the 14''' April. 

S. 45. W. to the mouth of a small creek at the upper part of a 
timbered bottom 

W. - to a point of Woodland oti the Lar'' side 

N. 85. VV. to a point on the Staf^ opposite to a bluff 

N. 80. W. to a point on Star** opposite to a bluff on La'! 

\V'. to the lower point of an Island which from the cir- 

cumstance of our arriving at it on sundav ~ we 
called Sunday Island, the river washes the base 
of the hills on both sides of this Island 

N. 70. W. to a point of woodland on the Star! Side the Island 
and it's sandbar occupy y, the distance of this 
course pass two small creeks on the Lar! Side, 
the upper one the largest, called Sharbono's creek. 

Point of Observation N? 2. 

On the Starl shore i^ of a mile above the cxtremitv of the third 
course of this day observed Meridian Alt'! O' L. L. with Octant by the 
back Ob; 81? 34' i-' — 

Latitude deduced from this Observat"- 

Point of Observation N° 3. 
At our encampment of this evening on the S'' S'.'' observed time and 
distance of 3 '' Western limb from Regulus, with Sextant. 5)e West. — 



P.M. 10 


P.M. II 



Distance. — 

• 47- 

2 — 




• 5'- 

10. — 




• 53- 

19 — 





2. — 









■ed t 

me an 

d d 

Stance of 


East. - 





























Distance. ■ 

P.M. II 

2. 2. — 72 

4- 27.— " 

7- S5 — " 

10. 19 — " 

12. 12 — " 

2S- 45 

27. 15 
29. - 
30- - 
3'- 15 















2. — 
















[[Clark Q 14'* of April Sunday 1805. 

a fine morning, a dog came to us this morning we sup- 
pose him to be left by the Ind' who had their camps near the 
Lake we passed yesterday not long sence, I observed several 
single Lodges built of stiks of [cjotten timber in different 
parts of the bottoms, in my walk of this [day] which was 
through the wooded bottoms and on the hills for several 
miles back from the river on the S.S. I saw the remains of 
two Indian incampmints with wide beeten tracks leading to 
them, those were no doubt the camps of the Ossinnaboin 
Indians (a Strong evidence is hoops of Small Kegs were found 
in the incampments) no other nation on the river above the 
Sioux make use of Spiritious licquer. The Ossinniboins is 
said to be pasionately fond of Licquer, and is the principal 
inducement to their putting themselves to the trouble of 
catching the fiew wolves and foxes which they furnish, and 
receive their [liquor] always in small Kegs. The Ossinniboins 
make use of the Same kind of Lodges which the Sioux and 
other Indians on this river make use of Those lodges or 
tents are made of a number of dressed buffalow Skins sowed 
together with sinews & deckerated with the tales, & Porcu- 
pine quils, when open it forms a half circle with a part about 
4 Inches wide projecting about 8 or 9 Inches from the center 
of the Streight Side for the purpose of attaching it to a pole 
to it the hight they wish to raise the tent, when the[y] errect 
this tent four poles of equal length are tied near one end, 
those poles are elevated and 8, 10 or 12 other poles are 
anexed forming a circle at the ground and lodging in the forks 
of the four attached poles, the tents are then raised, by at- 
taching the projecting part to a pole and incumpassing the 
poles with the tent by bringing the two ends together and at- 
tached with a cord, on land as high as is necessary, leaveing 
the lower part open for about 4 feet for to pass in & out, and 
the top is generally left open to admit the smoke to pass. 
The Borders of the river has been so much hunted by those 
Indians who must have left it about 8 or 10 days past and I 
presume are now in the neighbourhood of British establish- 
ments on the Ossinniboin ; the game is scerce and verry wild. 


The River continues wide and the current jenfle not more 
rapid than the current of the Ohio in middle State. The 
bottoms are wide and low and the moist parts of them contain 
Som wood such as cotton Elm & small ash, willow rose 
bushes &? &c. & next to the hills Great quantity of wild 
Isoop, [hyssop] the hills are high broken in every direction, 
and the mineral appearance of Salts continue to appear in a 
greater perportion, also Sulpher, coal &: bitumous water in a 
smaller quantity, I have observed but five burnt hills, about 
the little Missouri, and I have not seen any Pumey stone 
above that River I saw Buffalow on the L.S. crossed and 
dureing the time of dinner killed a Bull, which was pore, we 
made use of the best of it, I saw a village of Burrowing dogs 
on the L. S. passed a Island above which two small creeks 
falls in on the L.S. the upper of which is the largest and we 
call Shabonas Creek after our interpreter who incamped several 
weeks on this creek and is the highest point on the Missouri 
to which a white man has been previous to this time. Cap! 
Lewis walked out above this creek and killed an Elk which 
he found so meager that it was not fit for use, and joined the 
boat at Dusk at our camp on the S.S. opposit a high hill 
several parts of which had sliped down, on the side of those 
hills we Saw two white bear running from the report of Capl 
Lewis Shot, those animals assended those Steep hills with 
supprising ease & verlocity, they were too far to discover their 
prosise colour & size. Saw several gees nests on trees, also the 
nests & egs of the Magpies, a large grey owl killed, booted & 
with ears &c. 

Course distance &■: the 14'!' of April 
S. 45? VV. 2}< miles to the mouth of a small creek at the upper part 

of a wood bottom in a bend to L.S. 
West 3 'j miles to a point of wood land on the L.S. 

N. 85° VV. 2 miles to a point on the S. S. opposit a bluff" 
N. 80° W I 5^ m' to a point on S. S. pass'.' a bluff" on the L. S. 
West I mile to a small Island ops'* the upptr point the river 

washes the base of the hill on both sides, which we 

call Sunday IsH &!^ 
N. 70? W. 3 '^ miles to a p' of wood land on the S.S. the Island & its 
14 sand bars Occupv half the distance, passed 2 small 

creeks on the L.S. the upper the largest. 

[311 ] 


[Lewis:] Monday April i^"^ \%o^. 

Set out at an early hour this morning. I walked on shore, 
and Capt. Clark continued with the party it being an invariable 
rule with us not to be both absent from our vessels at the 
same time. I passed through the bottoms of the river on the 
Starl side, they were partially covered with timber, were ex- 
tensive, level and beatifull. in my walk which was about 6 
miles I passed a small rivulet of clear water making down from 
the hills, which on tasting, I discovered to be in a small de- 
gree brackish, it possessed less of the glauber salt, or alumn, 
than those little streams from the hills usually do. in a little 
pond of water fromed by this rivulet where it entered the 
bottom, I heard the frogs crying for the first time this season ; 
their note was the same with that of the small frogs which are 
common to the lagoons and swam[p]s of the U. States. I saw 
great quantities of gees feeding in the bottoms, of which I shot 
one. saw some deer and Elk, but they were remarkably shy. 
I also met with great numbers of Grouse or prarie hens as they 
are called by the English traders of the N.W. these birds 
appeared to be mating ; the note of the male, is kuck, kuck, 
kuck, coo, coo, coo. the first part of the note both male and 
female use when flying, the male also dubbs [drums with his 
wings) something like the pheasant, but by no means as loud. 
After breakfast Capt. Clark walked on the Sf! shore, and on 
his return in the evening gave me the following account ot his 
ramble. "I assended to the high country, about 9 miles dis- 
tant from the Missouri, the country consists of beatifull, 
level and fertile plains, destitute of timber. I saw many little 
dranes, which took their rise in the river hills, from whence as 
far as I could see they run to the N. E." these streams we 
suppose to be the waters of Mous river a branch of the Assin- 
niboin which the Indians informed us approaches the Missouri 
very nearly, about this point. " I passed," continued he, a 
Creek about 20 yards wide, which falls into the Missouri ; the 
bottoms of this creek are wide level and extreemly fertile, but 
almost entirely destitute of timber, the water of this creek as 
well as all those creeks and rivulets which we have passed 
since we left Fort Mandan was so strongly impregnated with 


salts and other miniral substances that I was incapable of drink- 
ing it. I saw the remains of several camps of the Assinniboins ; 
near one of which in a small ravcne, there was a park which 
they had formed of timber and brush, for the purpose of tak- 
ing the cabrie' or Antelope, it was constructed in the follow- 
ing manner, a strong pound was first made of timbers, on one 
side of which there was a small apparture, sufficiently large to 
admit an Antelope; from each side of this apparture, a cur- 
tain was extended to a considerable distance, widening as they 
receded from the pound." we passed a rock this evening 
standing in the middle of the river, and the bed of the river 
was formed principally of gravel, we encamped this evening 
on a sand point on Lar*! side, a little above our encampment 
the river was confined to a channel of 80 yards in width. 

Courses and distances of the 15'.'' April. ^j,^ 

N. to a point of wood on Lar') side, opposite to a high hill 2. 

N. 18. W. to a point of wood on the Star'? side opposite to the 

lower point of an Island in a Lar'J bend of the river 5. 
N. 20. E. to a blutf point on Star'? passed the upper part of the 

Island at 2 Miles 31/ 

N. 30. E. to a point of woodland on Lar'f side. 21^ 
N. 10. VV. on the Lar*? point r^ 

N. 15. W. on the Lar'? point 1/ 

N. 12. W. to the lower part of a bluff on the Sta'? side, passing a 

creek on Star' 1 1^ 

N. 52. W. to a high bluff on the Stal side 2. 

N. 75. W. to a point of woodland on the Star'? Si'} 3. 

N. 16. VV. to a point of Woodland on Lar'? side 3. 

miles 23. 
Point of Observation N'? 4. 

Apl. ij'!" iSoj. On the Sta'? shore, one mile above the extremity of 
the 2"' course of this day, I took two altitudes of the sun with the Sex- 
tant and artificial horizon. 

Time Altitudes, 

b m 1. o . „ 

A. M. 9. 9. 33 69. 20. 45. 

10. 3. 28. 84. 24. 15. 

Chronometer to fast at the time of observation on mean time. 

1 A common name for the American antelope ; corrupted from Spanish cabra, 
"goat." — Ed. 


[Clark :] i s'* of ^pril Monday i 805 

Set out at an early hour, Cap' Lewis walked on shore and 
Killed a goose, passed a Island in a bend to the L.S. the 
wind hard from the S. E. after brackfast I walked on Shore 
and assended to the high Countrey on the S. S. and off from 
the Missouri about three miles the countrey is butifull open 
fertile plain the dreans [drains] take theer rise near the clifts 
of the river and run from the river in a N E derection as far as 
I could See, this is the part of the River which Mouse river 
the waters of Lake Winnipec approaches within a fiew miles 
of Missouri, and I believe those dreans lead into that river, we 
passed a creek about 20 yd! wide on the S. S. the bottoms of 
this creek is extensive & fertile, the water of this as also, all 
the Streams which head a fiew miles in the hills discharge water 
which is black & unfit for use (and can safely say that I have 
not seen one drop of water fit for use above fort Mandan ex- 
cept Knife and the little Missouris Rivers and the Missouri, the 
other Streams being so much impregnated with mineral as to 
be verry disagreeble in its present state. 1 saw the remains 
of Several camps of ossinniboins, near one ot those camps & 
at no great distance from the mouth of the aforesaid creek, in 
a hollow, I saw a large Strong pen made for the purpose of 
catching the antelope, with wings projecting from it widining 
from the pen. 

Saw several gangs of Buffalow and som elk at a distance, a 
black bear seen from the Perogues to day. passed a rock in 
the Middle of the river, some smaller rocks from that to the 
L. Shore, the dog that came to us yesterday morning con- 
tinues to follow us, we camped on a sand point to the L.S. 

Course distance h". he 15't' of April 

North 2 m. to a p' of wood on the L*) Si"! a high hill on the S'i Si4 

N. 18? VV. 5 miles to a point of wood on the S'^ Si^ op"" the lower 

point of an Island L. Bend 
N. 20° E. 3'/( miles to a Bluff point on the S^ Si^ passed the upper 

part of the Island at 2 miles 
N. 30° E. 21^ miles to a point of woodland on the L. Side 
N. 10° .W i/^ a mile on the La'! point 



N. 15? W. ^ of a mile on the L. p' here the waters of jVIouse 

river is near 
N. I 2° VV. 1 y. miles to the lower part of a Bluff on the S^ Side pass- 
ing a creek on the S. Side. Goat pen creek 
N. 52° VV. 2 miles to a high Bluff on the S'l Side 
N. 75° VV. 3 miles to a p' of woodland on the S. Side 
N. 16? VV. 3 miles to a point of woods on the L. S. 

C^'*'*-] ruaday April 16'* 1805. 

Set out very early this morning. Capt. Clark walked on 
shore this morning, and killed an Antelope, rejoined us at ^ 
after eight A.M. he informed me that he had seen many 
Buffaloe Elk and deer in his absence, and that he had met 
with a great number of old hornets nests in the woody bottoms 
through which he had passed, the hills of the river still con- 
tinue extreemly broken for a few miles back, when it becomes 
a fine level country of open fertile lands, immediately on the 
river there are many fine leavel extensive and extreemly fertile 
high plains and meadows. I think the quantity of timbered 
land on the river is increasing, the mineral appearances still 
continue. I met with several stones today that had the ap- 
pearance of wood first carbonated and then petrefyed by the 
water of the river, which I have discovered has that effect on 
many vegitable substances when exposed to it's influence for 
a length of time. I believe it to be the stratas of coal seen in 
those hills which causes the fire and birnt appearances fre- 
quently met with in this quarter, where those birnt appear- 
ances are to be seen in the face of the river bluffs, the coal is 
seldom seen, and when you meet with it in the neighbourhood 
of the stratas of birnt earth, the coal appears to be presisely at 
the same hight, and is nearly of the same thickness, togeter 
with the sand and a sulphurious substance which ususually 
accompanys it. there was a remarkable large beaver caught 
by one of the party last night, these anamals are now very 
abundant. I have met with several trees which have been 
felled by them ao Inches in diameter, bark is their only food; 
and they appear to prefer that of the Cotton wood and willow ; 


as we have never met with any other species of timber on the 
Missouri which had the appearance of being cut by them, we 
passed three small creeks on the Star"! side, they take their 
rise in the river hills at no great distance, we saw a great 
number of geese today, both in the plains and on the river I 
have observed but tew ducks, those we have met with are the 
Mallard and blue winged Teal. 

Courses and distances of 16''' April. 

S. 80. W. to a point of woodland on the Star*! side 3. 

N. 36. W. to a point of woodland on the Lar") side. 2]^ 
S. 60. VV. to a point of wood on the Sta'? side, opposite to a bluff 

which commences i mile below on the bar's side 31^ 

N. 25. W. to a point of woodland on the Lar') side 2y^ 
S. 70. W. to a point of woodland on the Lar"! side, passing a 

point of wood and large sand bar on the Star's side 6. 
S. 65. W. along the Lar*" point of woods to our encampment of 

this evening y^ 

Miles 18. 

Note. The distances we are obliged to pass around the sand bars is 
much greater than those here stated from point to point. 

[Clark :3 le'* of April Tuesday 1805 

Wind hard from the S. E I walked on shore and Killed 
an antilope which was verry meagre, Saw Great numbers of 
Elk & some buffalow & Deer, a verry large Beaver cought 
this morning. Some verry handsom high planes & extensive 
bottoms, The mineral appearances of coal & Salt together 
with some appearance of Burnt hil[l]s continue, a number 
of old hornets nests Seen in every bottom more perticularly 
in the one opposit to the place we camped this night, the 
wooded bottoms are more extensive to day than Common, 
passed three small creeks on the S. S. to day which take their 
rise in the hills at no great distance, Great numbers of Gees 
in the river & in the Plains feeding on the Grass. 



80° vv. 



36° w. 



60? w 



25° vv. 



70"? W. 



Course Distance &f April ib"" 

miles to a point of wood land on the S'J Side, 
miles to a point of wood land on the L. Side 
miles to a point of wood on the S'l Side ops'! a blufF 

which commences i mile below on the Larboard Side, 
miles to a p] of wood land on the L. Side, 
miles to a point of Wood land on the L. Side, passing 

a point of wood land on the S'! Side, passing a large 

Sand bar S"* 
S. 65° VV. 1/ a mile along the L. Point of wood. 

QLewis:] IVeJneiJay April i-j"! 1805. 

A delightfiill morning, set out at an erly hour, the country 
th[r]ough which we passed to day was much the same as that 
discribed ot yesterday; there wase more appearance of hirnt 
hills, furnishing large quanties of lava and pumice stone; of 
the latter some pieces were seen floating down the river. 
Capt. Clark walked on shore this morning on the Star"! side, 
and did not join us untill half after six in the evening, he 
informed me that he had seen the remains of the Assinniboin 
encampments in every point of woodland through which he 
had passed, we saw immence quantities of game in every 
direction around us as we passed up the river; consisting of 
herds of Bufl^aloe, Elk, and Antelopes with some deer and 
woolves. tho' we continue to see many tracks of the bear we 
have seen but very few of them, and those are at a great dis- 
tance generally runing from us; I the[re]fore presume that 
they are extreemly wary and shy ; the Indian account of them 
dose not corrispond with our experience so far. one black 
bear passed near the perogues on the i6'I' and was seen by 
myself and the party but he so quickly disappeared that we 
did not shoot at him. at the place we halted to dine on the 
Lar'l side we met with a herd of bufFaloe of which I killed 
the fatest as I concieved among them, however on examining 
it I found it so poar that I thought it unfit for uce and onlv 
took the tongue; the party killed another which was still 
more lean, just before we encamped this evening we saw 


some tracks of Indians who had passed about 24 hours ; they 
left four rafts of tim [ber] on the Star"! side, on which they had 
passed, we supposed them to have been a party of the 
Assinniboins who had been to war against the rocky Moun- 
tain Indians, and then on their return. Capt. Clark saw a 
Curlou to-day. there were three beaver taken this morning 
by the party, the men prefer the flesh of this anamal, to that 
of any other which we have, or are able to procure at this 
moment. I eat very heartily of the beaver myself, and think 
it excellent; particularly the tale, and liver we had a fair 
wind today which enabled us to sail the greater part of the 
distance we have travled, encamped on the Lar'i shore the 
extremity of the last course. 

Courses and distances of the 17".'' 
S. 70. W. to a point of willows on the Star"? side 3. 

S. 75. W. along the Starf point, opposite to a bluff ^. 

N. 75. W. to a wood in a bend on the S'."* side 3. 

N. 50. W. to a point of woodland Star? side i-}4- 

S. 60. W. to a point of woodland on Star? side opposite to a 

bluff on Lard, just above which, a creek falls in on 

the Lar? about 10 yards wide. .}^ 

N. 80. W. to a willow point on the LafJ side. 3.^ 

S. 85. W. to a point of woodland Lar? opposite to a bluff on 

Star? side ^.ji 

West. Along the Lar? point, opposite to a high bluff above 

which a small run falls in I. 

S. 40. W. along the same point of woodland Lar? side. i 

S. 30. W. along the Lar? side to a willow point .'^ 

S. 14. W. to the upper part of the high timber on the Star? side 4. 
S. 28. W. to a point of woodland on the Lar? side where we 

encamped for the night 2 

Miles .26 

I^Clark:] iff; of April IVednesday 1805 

a fine morning wind from the S E. Gen'!' to day handsom 
high extencive rich Plains on each side, the mineral appear- 
ances continue with greater appearances of coal, much greater 
appearance of the hills haveing been burnt, more Pumice 
Stone & Lava washed down to the bottoms and some Pumice 


Stone floating in the river, I walked on the S.S. saw great 
numbers of Butfalow feeding in the Plains at a distance Cap' 
Lewis killed 2 Buffaiow buls which was near the water at the 
time of dineing, they were so pore as to be unfit for use. I 
saw Several Small parties of antelopes large herds of Elk, 
Some white wolves, and in a pond (formed on the S.S. by the 
Missouries changeing its bead) I seen Swan, Gees, 6c difl^erent 
kinds of Ducks in great numbers also a Beaver house. Passed 
a small creek on the S.S. ik several runs of water on each side. 
Saw the remains of Indian camps in every point of timbered 
land on the S.S. in the evining a thunder gust passed from 
the S W. without rain, about sunset saw some fresh Indians 
track and four rafts on the shore S.S. Those I prosume were 
Ossinniboins who had been on a war party against the Rockey 
Mountain Indians. Saw a curlow, some verry large beaver 
taken this morning, those animals are made use of as food 
and preferred by the party to any other at this season 
Course distance &" 17"" of April 1805 
miles to a point of willows on the S.S^ 
miles on the S'i Side opposid a Bluff 
miles to a wood in a bend to the S'! Side 
miles to a point of wood Land S*? Side 
■^4' of a mile to a p' of wood land on the S. S'? opposit to 
a Bluff on the L'f Side just above which a creek 
falls in on the LaW about 10 y" wide. 
N. 80° W. 3 i/^ miles to a willow point on the L. S'l a Lake & creek 

St^ Halls Strand lake 
S. 85° W. 33-^ miles to a L. p! of wood land opposit to a bluff on 

the Starboard Side. 
\^est ' mile along the L. p! of wood land, a high bluff on the 

S.S. above which a run falls in burnt hills 
S. 40° W. I mile along the same point of wood land Lar'J S. 
S. 30"? W. i^ of a mile on the La'l Side of a willow point. 
S. 14° W. 4 miles to the upper part of a high timber on the Star- 
board Side. 
S. 28° W . 2 miles to a point of wood land on the L. Side where we 
m'.» 26 camped for the night. 

AW The distance we are obliged to go round sand bars 5.-; is much 
greater than those called for in the courses from point to point &? 


yo°- W. 



75°- W- 



75- W. 



50"? VV 



60"? W 



^Lewis:] ThursJay April i 8'* 1805. 

A fine morning, set out at an early hour, one Beaver 
caught this morning by two traps, having a foot in each ; the 
traps belonged to different individuals, between whom, a con- 
test ensued, which would have terminated, most probably, in a 
serious rencounter had not our timely arrival at the place pre- 
vented it. after breakfast this morning, Capt. Clark walked 
on Sta'! shore, while the party were assending by means of 
their toe lines, I walked with them on the bank; found a 
species of pea bearing a yellow flower, and now in blume ; it 
seldom rises more than 6 inches high, the leaf & stalk resem- 
bles that of the common gardin pea, the root is perenial. (see 
specimen of vegi tables N° 3.) I also saw several parsels of 
buffaloe's hair hanging on the rose bushes, which had been 
bleached by exposure to the weather and became perfectly 
white, it [had] every appearance of the wool of the sheep, 
tho' much finer and more silkey and soft. I am confident 
that an excellent cloth may be made of the wool of the 
Buffaloe. the Buffaloe I killed yesterday had cast his long 
hare, and the poil which remained was very thick, fine, and 
about 2 inches in length. I think this anamal would have 
furnished about five pounds of wool.' we were detained 
to-day from one to five P. M. in consequence of the wind 
which blew so violently from N. that it was with difficulty we 
could keep the canoes from filling with water altho' they were 
along shore; I had them secured by placing the perogues on 
the out side of them in such manner as to break the waves off 
them, at 5 we proceed, and shortly after met with Capt. 
Clark, who had killed an Elk and a deer and was wating our 
arrival, we took the meat on board and continued our march 
untill nearly dark when we came too on the Star"^ side under a 
boald well-timbered bank which sheltered us from the wind 

' When Jolliet first encountered the buffalo, he observed the possibility of vising 
its wool — " with the wool of these oxen he could make cloth, much finer than most 
of that which we bring from France." Marest says that the Illinois made from this 
hair various articles, as leggings, girdles, and pouches. See Jes. Relations, Iviii, p. 
107; Ixvi, p. 231. Catlin recommends (M Amer. Inds., i, p. 263) the utilization 
of the buffalo's hair for woollen manufactures. — Ed. 








which had abated but not yet ceased, here we encamped, it 
being the extremity of the last course of this day. 

Courses and distances of the 18''' April. 
South to a sand point on the Star^ side 3. 

N. 75. W. to a point of Woodland on Lar'? side 2. >/< 

N. 85. W. along the Lar'? point i^ 

S. 25. E. to a sand point Star"? side 2. 

S. 60. VV. to a willow point Star'' side I. 

S. 65. W. along the Star') shore to a point of timbered land, 

opposite to a bluff on Lar'f i^ 

N. 25. W. to a copse of wood on star'' side, in a bend 2. 

S. 50. VV. to a point of timbered land on Star'' side where we 

encamped for the night I v/^ 

Miles 13 
Point of Observation N? 5. 
On the Star') shore at the extremity of the fifth course of this day 

Observed Meridian Alt') of O'' L. L. with Octant by 

the back Observation 79° 12' 00" 

Latitude deduced from this observatf 

[;Clark:] ig';* of April Thursday 1805 

Set out at an earlv hour one Beaver & a Musrat cought 
this morning, the beaver cought in two traps, which like to 
have brought about a missunderstanding between two of the 
party &c. after brackfast I assended a hill and observed that 
the river made a great bend to the South, I concluded to walk 
thro' the point about 2 miles and take Shabono, with me, he 
had taken a dost of Salts &^ his squar followed on with her 
child, when I struck the next bend of the [river] could see 
nothing of the Party, left this man & his wife & child on the 
river bank and went out to hunt, Killed a young Buck Elk, 
& a Deer, the Elk was tolerable meat, the Deer verry pore. 
Butchered the meat and continued untill near Sunset before 
Cap' Lewis and the party came up, thev were detained by the 
wind, which rose soon after I left the boat from the N W. & 
blew verry hard untill verrv late in the evening. We camped 
V0L...-2. [3,1] 


on the S.S. in an excellent harbor, Soon after we came too, 
two men went up the river to set their beaver traps they met 
with a Bear and being without their arms thought prodent to 
return &f The wild cheries are in bloom, Great appearance 
of Burnt hills Pumice Stone &? the coal & salt appearance 
continues, the water in the small runs much better than below. 
Saw several old Indian camps, the game, such as Buffalow 
Elk, antelopes & Deer verry plenty 

Course distance &C. 18"" of April 
South 3 miles to a point on the Sf! Side 

N. 75° W. 2^ miles to a wood point on the L. Side 
N. 85° W. y, a mile along the La^ Side 
S. 25° E 2 miles to a sand point on the S'i Side 
S. 60° W. I mile to a p' of Willows on the S'' Side 
S. 65° W i^ mile along the S'! po' to a point of timbered land ops^ a 

Bluff on the La4 Side 
N. 25° W 2. miles to a Copse of woods on the S"? Side 
S. 50? VV. I i/< miles to the upper part of a wood on the Sta'? Side 
miles 13 & camped 

[Lewis:] Friday April x^": lio^. 

The wind blew so hard this morning from N.W. that we 
dared not to venture our canoes on the river. Observed con- 
siderable quantities of dwarf Juniper on the hill sides (see 
specimen N° 4)^ it seldom rises higher then 3 feet, the wind 
detained us through the couse of this day, tho' we were fortu- 
nate in having placed ourselves in a safe harbour, the party 
killed one Elk and a beaver today. The beaver of this part 
of the Missouri are larger, fatter, more abundant and better 
clad with fur than those of any other part of the country that 
I have yet seen ; I have remarked also that their fur is much 

[^ClarkQ 19"! of April Friday 1805 

a blustering windey day the wind so hard from the N.W. 
that we were fearfull of ventering our Canoes in the river, lay 
by all day on the S. Side in a good harber, the Praries appear 

1 This should be No. 104. See " Scientific Data : Botany," in vol. vi, /><;//. — Ed. 
[ Z22 ] 


to Green, the cotton trees bigin to leave, Saw some plumb 
bushes in full bloom, those were the plumb bushes which I 
have seen for some time. Killed an Klk an[d] a Beaver to 
day. The beaver of this river is much larger than usial, Great 
deal of Sign of the large Bear, 

QLewis:] SalurJay April lo": 1805. 

The wind continued to blow tolerably hard this morning but 
by no means as violently as it did yesterday ; we determined 
to set out and accordingly departed a little before seven. I 
walked on shore on the N. side of the river, and Capt Clark 
proceeded with the party, the river bottoms through which I 
passed about seven miles were tertil and well covered with 
Cottonwood some Boxalder, ash and red Elm. the under 
brush, willow, rose bushes Honeysuccles, red willow, goosbury, 
currant and servicebury &c in the open grounds along the foot 
o\ the river hills immence quantities of the hisop.' in the 
course of my walk I killed two deer, wounded an Elk and a 
deer ; saw the remains of some Indian hunting camps, near 
which stood a small scaffold of about 7 feet high on which were 
deposited two doog slays with their harnis. underneath this 
scaffold a human body was lying, well rolled in several dressed 
buffaloe skins and near it a bag of the same materials con- 
ta[in]ing sundry articles belonging to the disceased ; consisting 
of a pare of mockersons, some red and blue earth, beaver's 
nails, instruments for dressing the Buffalo skin, some dryed 
roots, several platts of the sweet grass, and a small quantity of 
Mandan tobacco. I presume that the bodv, as well as the 
bag containing these articles, had formerly been placed on the 
scaftold as is the custom of these people, but had fallen down 
by accedent. near the scaffold I saw the carcase of a large dog 

' In the MS. occurs here a red-ink interlineation (cancelled, however, by another 
pen), "copy this for Dr. Barton." As previously explained, in Biddle's text most 
'of the n.-itural history notes are omitted, because he had intended that this material 
should be worked up by Dr. Benjamin Smith Barton. The latter failed to do this; 
and the often elaborate observations of Lewis and Clark on the fauna, flora, and 
silva of the Great West have therefore been hitherto practically lost to the scientific 
world. — Ed. 

[323 ] 


not yet decayed, which I supposed had been killed at the time 
the human body was left on the scaffold; this was no doubt the 
reward, which the poor doog had met with for performing 
the [blank space in MS.] friendly office to his mistres of trans- 
porting her corps to the place of deposit, it is customary with 
the Assinniboins, Mandans, Minetares &c who scaffold their 
dead, to sacrefice the favorite horses and doggs of their dis- 
ceased relations, with a view of their being servicable to them 
in the land of sperits. I have never heard of any instances of 
human sacrefices on those occasions among them. 

The wind blew so hard that I concluded it was impossible 
for the perogues and canoes to proceed and therefore returned 
and joined them about three in the evening. Capt. Clark 
informed me that soon after seting out, a part of the bank of 
the river fell in near one of the canoes and had very nearly 
filled her with water, that the wind became so hard and the 
waves so high that it was with infinite risk he had been able 
to get as far as his present station, the white perogue and 
several of the canoes had shiped water several times but happily 
our stores were but little injured ; those which were wet we 
put out to dry and determined to remain untill the next morn- 
ing, we sent out four hunters who soon added 3 Elk 4 gees 
and 2 deer to our stock of provisions, the party caught six 
beaver today which were large and in fine order, the Buffaloe, 
Elk and deer are poor at this season, and of cours are not very 
palitable, however our good health and apetites make up 
every necessary deficiency, and we eat very heartily of them, 
encamped on Star*^ side ; under a high well timbered bank. 

Courses and Distances of this dav. 


South to the upper part of a timbered bottom at a bluff on 

the Lar'} side i y^ 

VVest to a point of high timber on the Sta'' Si'J passing over 

a large sand point on SfJ side I i/!^ 

N. 45. W. to a large tree in a bend on star'' side opposite a large 

sand point I Yz 

S. 45. W. to a point of low willows on Sta"? side 2 

Miles 61^ 
[ 3-^4 ] 


^^"^ 2o'* of April Satturday 1805 

Wind a head from the N VV. we set out at 7 oCIock pro- 
ceeded on, soon after we set out a Bank fell in near one of 
the canoes which like to have filled her with water, the wind 
became hard and waves so rough that we proceeded with our 
little canoes with much risque, our situation was such after 
setting out that we were obliged to pass round the i'.' Point or 
lay exposed to the blustering winds & waves, in passing 
round the Point several canoes took in water as also our large 
Perogue but without injuring our stores &' much I proceeded 
on to the upper part of the i" bend and came too at a butifull 
Glade on the S.S. about i mile below Cap' Lewis who had 
walked thro' the point, left his Coat & a Deer on the bank 
which we took on board, a short distance below our Camp 
I saw some rafts on the S. S. near which, an Indian woman 
was scaffeled in the Indian form of Deposing their Dead and 
fallen down She was or had been raised about 6 feet, inclosed 
in Several robes tightly laced around her, with her dog Slays, 
her bag of Different coloured earths paint small bones of 
animals beaver nales and Several other little trinkets, also a 
blue jay, her dog was killed and lay near her. Cap! Lewis 
joined me soon after I landed & informed me he had walked 
several miles higher, & in his walk killed 2 Deer & wounded 
an Elk & a Deer, our party shot in the river four beaver & 
cought two, which were verry fat and much admired by the 
men, after we landed they killed 3 Elk 4 Gees & 2 Deer 
we had some of our Provisions &! which got a little wet aired, 
the wind continued so hard that we were compelled to delay 
all day. Saw several buftalow lodged in the drift wood which 
had been drouned in the winter in passing the river; saw the 
remains of 2 which had lodged on the side of the bank & eat 
bv the bears. 



Course distance &■; 20".'' of April 1805 

South I ]/> miles to the upper part of a timbered bottom at a bluff 

on the La'' Side 
West i]/, miles to a high timber on the S*! Side passing over a 

large Sand point on S.S. 
N. 45- W. I y, mile to a tree in a Glade in a bend to the Starboard 

Side a sand p' ops^ 
S. 45° W. 2 miles to a point of low willows on the S'? Side. 

This morning was verry cold, some snow about 2 oCloclc 
from flying clouds, Some frost this morning & the mud at 
the edge of the water was frosed 

QLewis :] Sunday April 2 1 '.' 1 805. 

Set out at an early hour this morning. Capt Clark walked 
on shore; the wind tho' a head was not violent, the country 
through which we passed is very simelar in every respect to 
that through which we have passed for several days. We saw 
immence herds of buffaloe Elk deer & Antelopes. Capt. 
Clark killed a buffaloe and 4 deer in the course of his walk 
today ; and the party with me killed 3 deer, 2 beaver, and 4 
buffaloe calves, the latter we found very delicious. I think 
it equal to any veal I ever tasted, the Elk now begin to shed 
their horns, passed one large and two small creeks on the 
Larl side, tho' neither of them discharge any water at present, 
the wind blew so hard this evening that we were obliged to 
halt several hours, we reached the place of incampment after 
dark, which was on the Lar"! side a little above IVh'ite earth 
river which discharges itself on the Sta'."* side, immediately at 
the mouth of this river it is not more then 10 yards wide being 
choked up by the mud of the Missouri; tho' after leaving the 
bottom lands of this river, or even sooner, it becomes a boald 
stream of sixty yards wide and is deep and navigable, the 
course of this river as far as I could see from the top of Cut 
bluff, was due North, it passes through a beatifull level and 
[ 3-^6 ] 


fertile vally about five miles in width. I think I saw about 
25 miles up this river, and did not discover one tree or bush 
of any discription on it's borders, the vally was covered with 
Elk and buffaloe. saw a great number of gees today as usual, 
also some swan and ducks. 

Courses and Distances of this day. 

o mill 

S. 18. E. to a sand point Sfi opposite to a bluf La"? i y^ 

N. 75. W. to a point of high timber on SfJ opposite a biff. ^ 

N. 40. W. to a willow point on Lar'! opposite to a biufF. 3."^ 

N. 60. W. to a point of woodland on Star'', side, oposite to a 
bluff, just below which on the Lar'f side a creek 
falls in. 4-5^ 

N. 25. E. to a point of wood land on Lar"* opposite to a high bluff. 2. 
N. 10. W. to the upper part of a bluff Star'f and in a Star'! bend. 2. 
S. 50. W. to the upper point of the timbered bottom on Lar'! 
side below a high bluff point which we called Cut 
bluffs at Yi mile Pass White Earth river on Star'! 2 ^ 

16 14 

CCIark Q 1 1 ff of April Sunday 1805. 

Set out early the wind gentle & from the N.W. the 
river being verry crooked, I concluded to walk through the 
point, the countrey on either side is verry similar to that we 
have passed. Saw an emence number of Elk & Buffalow, also 
Deer Antelopes Geese Ducks & a fiew Swan, the Buffalow 
is about Calveing I killed a Buffalow & 4 Deer in my walk 
to day, the party killed 2 deer 2 beaver & 4 Buffalow Calves, 
which was verry good veele. I saw old camps of Indians on 
the L. Side, we passed i large & 2 small creeks on the L. 
Side neither of them discharge any water into the river, in 
the evening the wind became verry hard a head, we made 
camp at a late hour which was on the L. Side a little above the 
mouth of White Earth River which falls in on the Sta"" Side 
and is 60 yds. wide, several ml! up 

[ r-7 ] 


miles Corse distance &c. 21'' of ap! 

S 18° E 1)4 ml. to a sand p' S. S. ops:' a bluff on the L.S. 

N. 75° W ^ to a p' of high timber on the S.S':' ops'? a Bluff 

N. 40° W 2y2 to a willow p' L. S'! ops^ a Bluff on the S.S'* 

N. 60° W 43/ to a p' of wood land on the S.S"! ops'? a bluff just 

below which a creek falls in on the L.S. 
N. 25° E 2 to a p' of wood land on the L. S'? oppos"? to a high bluff 

on the Star"? Side 
N. 10° W 2 to the upper part of a low bluff on the S.S** ops'? to a 

p' of timber on the L. Side 
N 50° W 2}4 miles to the upper part of a timber at a high short 
miles 1 51/ bluff on the Lar'? Side, passed white earth river at JX 

mile on the S"! Side 

[^Lewis : 2 Monday April 22'"' 1805. 

Set out at an early hour this morning ; proceeded pretty 
well untill break.fa[s]t, when the wind became so hard a head 
that we proceeded with difficulty even with the assistance of 
our toe lines, the party halted and Cp! Clark and myself 
walked to the white earth river which approaches the Missouri 
very near at this place, being about 4 miles above it's entrance, 
we found that it contained more water than streams of it's size 
generally do at this season, the water is much clearer than 
that of the Missouri, the banks of the river are steep and 
not more than ten or twelve feet high ; the bed seems to be 
composed of mud altogether, the salts which have been 
before mentioned as common on the Missouri, appears in 
great quantities along the banks of this river, which are in 
many places so thickly covered with it that they appear per- 
fectly white, perhaps it has been from this white appearance 
of it's banks that the river has derived it's name, this river 
is said to be navigable nearlv to it's source, which is at no 
great distance from the Saskashawan, and I think from it's 
size the direction which it seems to take, and the latitude of 
it's mouth, that there is very good ground to believe that it 
[' 328 ] 


extends as far North as latitude 50^' this stream passes 
through an open country generally, the broken hills of the 
Missouri about this place exhibit large irregular and broken 
masses of rocks and stones; some of which tho' 200 feet 
above the level of the water seem at some former period to 
have felt it's influence, for they appear smoth as if woarn by 
the agetation of the water, this collection consists of white & 
grey gannite, a brittle black rock, flint, limestone, freestone 
some small specimens of an excellent pebble and occasionally 
broken stratas of a stone which appears to be petrefved wood'- 
It IS of a black colour, and makes excellent whetstones Coal 
or carbonated wood pumice stone lava and other mineral apear- 
ances still continue, the coal appears to be of better quality ■ 
I exposed a specimen of it to the fire and found that it birnt 
tolerably well, it afl^orded but little flame or smoke, but pro- 
duced a hot and lasting fire. I asscended to the top of the 
cutt blufl^ this morning, from whence I had a most delightfull 
view of the country, the whole of which except the vally 
formed by the Missouri is void of timber or underbrush 
exposing to the first glance of the spectator immence herds of 
Bufl^aloe, Elk, deer, & Antelopes feeding in one common and 
boundless pasture, we saw a number of bever feeding on the 
bark of the trees alonge the verge of the river, several of which 
we shot, found them large and fat. walking on shore this 
evening I met with a buflliloe calf which attatched itself to 
me and continued to follow close at my heels untill I em- 
barked and left it.-' it appeared allarmed at my dog which 
was probably the cause of it's so readily attatching itself to me. 
Capt Clark informed me that he saw a large drove of bufl^aloe 
pursued by wolves today, that they at length caught a calf 
vvhich was unable to keep up with the herd, the cows only 
defend their young so long as they are able to keep up with 
the herd, and se ldom return any distance in surch of them. 

. ' White Earth River rises in the Coteau du Missouri, near the 49th parallel. - Ed 

■ • fu Tf?"' ^^- "'""'■ '"'''■' '' "55. ^S6) the docile and affectionate dispol 
s.fon of the buffalo calf, he was able to lure .0 his camp a dozen of them, who were 
successfully fed on the millc of a domestic cow. He succeeded in transporting one 
ot these to the Chouteau farm near St. Louis, where it throve well. — Ed. 



Courses and distances of 22"'' of April. 1805. 

N. 60° W. to a point of woodland on the Lar'? side. 
W. along the woodland on Lar'J shore 

S. 70. W. to the lower point of a bluff in a bend on star's side 
S. 20. W. to the upper part of the star"! bluff. 
S. 60. E. to a point of woods in a bend on Star's 
S. 30. E. to a willow point on the Star^ side. 
N. 65. E. to an object in a bend on Lar'i where we encampei 
for the evening 



Point of Observation N'; 6. — April 22"? 1805. 

On the Lar^ shore one mile above the cut bluff 

Observed time and distance of ©'* and I)"* nearest limbs, with Sex- 
tant, the O East. 



44. 3.-84. 20. 

46. 16. " . 20. 

48. 8.— " . 20. 

49. 28. — " . 19. 

50. 24.— " . 19. 

51. 27.— " . 19. 

52. 35.— ". 19. 

53. 40.— " . i8. 


1 1 






25.— " 




8.— » 




2. — " 




3-— " 




4-— " 




20. — " 




40. — " 




Observed equal altitudes of the Q with Sextant 


1. 21. 49. 
"• 23. 38 
" . 25. 29. 

P.M. 5. 13. 38. 
"• 15- 31- 

Altitude by Sextant at the time of observation 77° 52' 45'' 

[[Clark :] 12";' of April Monday 1805 

a verry cold morning Some frost, we set out at an early 
hour and proceeded on verry well untill brackfast at which 
time the wind began to blow verry hard ahead, and continued 


hard all day we proceeded on with much dificuelty with the 
assistance of the toe Ropes. Cap! Lewis & my self walked to 
the River which is near the Missouri four miles above its 
mouth, this river is 60 yards wide and contains a greater 
perportion of water at this time than is common for Rivers of 
its size it appears navagabie as fur as any of the party was, 
and 1 am told to near its source in morrasses in the open 
Plains, it passes (as far as we can see which is 6 or 7 Leagus) 
thro' a butifull extinsive vallee, rich & fertile and at this time 
covered with Butfalow, Elk & antelopes, which may be Seen 
also in any other direction in this quarter, this river must 
take its rise at no great distance East of the Saskashawan, and 
no doubt as far N. as Laf! 50; 

Some of the high plains on the broken rivers [banks] of 
the river contains great quantity of Pebble Stones of various 
sizes, The Stratum of coal is much richer than below, the 
appearances of Mineral & burnt hills still continue the 'river 
rising a little. Saw an emence number of beaver feeding on 
the waters edge & swiming killed several, Cap' Lewis as- 
sended a hill from the top of which he had a most inchanting 
prospect of the Countrey around & the meanderings of the 
two rivers, which is remarkable crooked, a bufFalow calf 
which was on the shore alone followed Cap Lewis some dis- 
tance, I observed a large drove of bufFalow prosued by 
wolves cought one of their calves in my view, those animals 
defend their young as long as they can keep up with the drove 

Course & Distance 221,'' of April 


N. 60? VV. 2j/ to a point of wood land on the L'i Side 

West I along the wood on the L'' point 

S. 70? VV.. I to the lower point of" a bluff in a bend to the Starboard 


S. 20° W. 2 to the upper part of the Said bluff on the Starboard Side 

S. 60? E I to a wood in a bend to the S"! Side 

S. 30° E 2 to a willow point on the S'? Side 

N. 65? E 1% to an object in a bend to the L. S. and camped 




^ Lewis :] Tuesday April z^.'^ 

Set out at an early hour this morning, about nine A.M. 
the wind arose, and shortly after became so violent that we 
were unabled to proceed, in short it was with much difficulty 
and some risk that I was enabled to get the canoes and per- 
ogues into a place of tolerable safety, there being no timber on 
either side of the river at this place, some of the canoes shiped 
water, and wet several parsels of their lading, which I directed 
to be opened and aired, we remained untill five in the even- 
ing when the wind abating in some measure, we reloaded, and 
proceeded, shortly after we were joined by Capt. Clark who 
had walked on shore this morning, and passing through the 
bottom lands had fallen on the river some miles above, and 
concluding that the wind had detained us, came down the river 
in surch of us. he had killed three black-taled, or mule deer, 
and a buffaloe Calf, in the course of his ramble, these hard 
winds, being so frequently repeated, become a serious source 
of detention to us. incamped on the Star'? side.' 

Courses and distances of the 23"' April. 

o Miles 

S. 25. E. to a point of timbered land on Staff - 2.^ 

S. along this Star') point of woodland, a high bluff opposite i. 

S. 78. W. to a cops of woods, under a hill on Star'? in a bend 4. 
S. 14. E. to a point of high timber in a Lar'' bend passing the 

extremity of a little bay S!'' 4 y^ 

S. 25. W. to a point of woodland on the Lar') side. I yi 

13 >< 

nciark Q 23*;^ of April 1805 

A cold morning at about 9 oClock the wind as usial rose 
from the N W and continued to blow verry hard untill late in 
the evening I walked on Shore after brackfast in my walk 
on the S Side passed through extensive bottoms of timber inter- 
sperced with glades & low open plains, I killed 3 mule or 
black tail Deer, which was in tolerable order. Saw Several 
others, I also killed a Buffalow calf which was verry fine, I 
struck the river above the Perogus which had come too in a 

^ This was above Painted Wood Creek. — En. 


bend to the L.S. to shelter from the wind which had become 
violently hard, I joined Cap' Lewis in the evening & after 
the winds tailing which was late in the evening we proceeded 
on & encamped on the S.S. The winds of this countrey which 
blow with some violence almost every day, has become a serious 
obstruction in our progression onward, as we cant move when 
the wind is high with[out] great risque, and [if] there was no 
risque the winds is generally a head and often too violent to 

Course & Distance 23'^ April 

S. 25? E lyi miles to a point of timbered land on the Starboard Side 
South I mile on the S'.' point, of wood land a high Blurt" opposit. 

S. 78° W. 4 miles to a copse of woods under a hill to the S'^ Side in 

a bend 
S. 14? E. 4IJ miles to a point of high timber in a larboard bend, 

passing the enterence of a little bay to S.S. 
S. 25° W. i]/, miles to a point of woods on the L*! Side 
miles 13}^ 

[Lewis :] If'ednesJay April z^'." 

The wind blew so hard during the whole of this dav, that 
we were unable to move, notwithstanding that we were shel- 
tered by high timber from the effects of the wind, such was it 's 
violence that it caused the waves to rise in such manner as to 
wet many articles in the small canoes before they could be 
unloaded, we sent out some hunters who killed 4 deer & 2 
Elk, and caught some young wolves of the small kind. Soar 
eyes is a common complaint among the party. I believe it 
origenates from the immence quantities of sand which is driven 
by the wind from the sandbars of the river in such clouds that 
you are unable to discover the opposite bank of the river in 
many instances, the particles of this sand are so fine and light 
that they are easily supported by the air, and are carried by 
■the wind for many miles, and at a distance exhibiting every 
appearance of a collumn of thick smoke, so penitrating is this 
sand that we cannot keep any article free from it ; in short we 
are compelled to eat, drink, and breath it very freelv. my 


pocket watch, is out of order, she will run only a few minutes 
without stoping. I can discover no radical defect in her works, 
and must therefore attribute it to the sand, with which, she 
seems plentitully charged, notwithstanding her cases are double 
and tight. 

[Clark:] 24''' of April IVednesday 1805 

The wind rose last night and continued blowing from the 
N. & N W. and sometimes with great violence, untill 7 
oClock P. M, Several articles wet in the Perogues by their 
takeing water &? as the wind was a head we could not move 
to day Sent out hunters, they killed 4 Deer 2 Elk & cought 
some young wolves of the small kind, The party complain 
much of the Sand in their eves. The sand is verry fine and 
rises in clouds from the Points and bars of the river, I may 
say that dureing those winds we eat Drink & breeth a pre- 
portion of sand. 

[^Lewis:] Thursday April ■^c^": 1805. 

The wind was more moderate this morning, tho' still hard ; 
we set out at an early hour.' the water friezed on the oars 
this morning as the men rowed, about 10 oclock A.M. the 
wind began to blow so violently that we were obliged to lye 
too. my dog had been absent during the last night, and I was 
fearfull we had lost him altogether, however, much to my 
satisfaction he joined us at 8 oclock this morning. The wind 
had been so unfavorable to our progress for several days past, 
and seeing but little prospect of a favourable chang ; knowing 
that the river was crooked, from the report of the hunters who 
were out yesterday, and beleiving that we were at no verv great 
distance from the Yellow stone River ; I determined, in order 
as mush as possible to avoid detention, to proceed by land with 
a few men to the entrance of that river and make the necessary 
observations to determine it's position, which I hoped to effect 
by the time that Capt. Clark could arrive with the party; 

1 I remarked, as a singular circumstance, that there is no dew in this countrj-, and 
very little rain. Can it be owing to the want of timber ? — Gass (p. 1 14). 



accordingly I set out at 1 1 OCf on the Larl* side, accompanyed 
by four men. we proceeded about four miles, when falling in 
with some bufFaloe I killed a yearling calf, which was in good 
order; we soon cooked and made a hearty meal of a part of it, 
and renewed our march, our rout lay along the foot of the 
river hills. when we had proceeded about four miles, 1 
ascended the hills from whence I had a most pleasing view of 
the country, particularly of the wide and fertile vallies formed 
by the niissouri and the yellowstone rivers, which occasionally 
unmasked by the wood on their borders disclose their meander- 
ings for many miles in their passage through these delightfull 
tracts of country. I could not discover the junction of the 
rivers immediately, they being concealed by the wood ; how- 
ever, sensible that it could not be distant I determined to 
encamp on the bank of the Yellow stone river which made it's 
appearance about 2 miles South of me. the whol face of the 
country was covered with herds of Buffaloe, Elk & Antelopes; 
deer are also abundant, but keep themselves more concealed in 
the woodland, the bufFaloe Elk and Antelope are so gentle 
that we pass near them while feeding, without apearing to 
excite any alarm among them ; and when we attract their atten- 
tion, they frequently approach us more nearly to discover what 
we are, and in some instances pursue us a considerable distance 
apparenly with that view, in our way to the place I had 
determined to encamp, we met with two large herds of buffaloe, 
of which we killed three cows and a calf two of the former, 
wer but lean, we therefore took their tongues and a part of 
their marrow-bones only. I then proceeded to the place of 
our encampment with two of the men, taking with us the Calf 
and marrowbones, while the other two remained, with orders 
to dress the cow that was in tolerable order, and hang the meat 
out of the reach of the wolves, a precaution indispensible to 
it's safe keeping, even for a night, we encamped on the bank 
of the vellow stone river, 2 miles South of it's confluence with 
"the Missouri. On rejoining Cap! Clark, the 26'!' in the even- 
ing, he informed me, that at 5. P.M. after I left him the wind 
abated in some measure and he proceeded a few miles further 
and encamped. 



The courses and distances of this day (25''') being as follow. 


N. 68° W. to a point of woodland on Lar^ side ^.yz 

West to a tree in a low plain, in a bend on St"? i.i^ 

South. to the upper part of a low bluff in a bend on Star'J side i.^ 

East. to a point of timbered land on Star'? side. 2.^ 

S. 28° E. along the Star"? point, opposite a blufF .^ 

S. 20° W. along the Star'J point opposite a bluff i. 
N. 65° W. to the upper part of a timbered bottom in a bend on 

Star"! side 3. 
S. 72° VV. to the lower point of some timber in a bend on Star'J 

side 1.3/ 

miles. 14 y. 

[^Clark:] z^".- of April Thursday 1805 

The wind was moderate & ahead this morning, we set out 
at an early hour The morning cold, some flying clouds to be 
seen, the wind from the N: ice collected on the ores this 
morning, the wind increased and became so violent about 
1 oClock we were obliged to lay by our canoes haveing taken 
in some water, the Dog which was lost yesterday, joined us 
this morning. 

finding that the winds retarded our pregression for maney 
days past, and no app[e]arance of an alteration, and the river 
being [so] crooked that we could never have 3 miles fair wind, 
Cap' Lewis concluded to go by land as far as the Rochejhone 
or yellow Stone river, which we expect is at no great distance 
by land and make Some Selestial observations to find the 
situation of its mouth, and by that measure not detain the 
Perogues at that place any time for the purpose of makeing 
those necessary observations he took 4 men & proceeded on 
up the Missouri on the L. Side, at 5 oClock the wind luled 
and we proceeded on and incamped 











Course Distance &f 2^'*' of April 

N. 68° W. 2}4 miles to point of wood land on the Larboard Side 
West ii/^ miles to a tree in a bend to the S'!* Side in a low plain 

South 13X miles to the upper part of a low bluff in a bend to the 

S'! Side 
East 2}4 miles to a point of timbered land on the Starboard Side. 

S. 28° E. .'^ on the S."" point. Bluft' ops'? 
S 20° W. I mile on the Sf) point bluff ops'? 
N. 65? W 3 miles to the upper part of a timbered bottom in a bend 

to the S.S'' 
S. 72° W. I ^ mile to the lower part of some timber in a bend to the 
141^ S. Side 

[Lewis :] FriJay April 26" 1805. 

This morning I dispatched Joseph Fields up the yellow- 
stone river with orders to examine it as far as he could con- 
veniently and return the same evening ; two others were 
directed to bring in the meat we had killed last evening, while 
I proceeded down the river with one man in order to take a 
view of the confluence of this great river with the Missouri, 
which we found to be two miles distant on a direct line N.W. 
from our encampment, the bottom land on the lower side of 
the Yellowstone river near it's mouth, for about one mile in 
width appears to be subject to inundation ; while that on the 
opposite side of the Missouri and the point formed by the 
junction of these rivers is of the common elivation, say from 
twelve to 18 feet above the level of the water, and of course 
not liable to be overflown except in extreem high water, which 
dose not appear to be verv frequent, there is more timber in 
the neighbourhood of the junction of these rivers, and on the 
Missouri as far below as the White-earth river, than there is 
on any part of the Missouri above the entrance of the Chyenne 
river to this place, the timber consists principally of Cotton- 
wood, with some small elm, ash and boxalder. the under 
growth on the sandbars and verge of the river is the small 
leafed willow; the low bottoms, rose bushes which rise to 
three or four fe[e]t high, the redburry, serviceburv, and the 

VOL. r.-.3 [ZZ7] ' 


redwood ; the high bottoms are of two discriptions, either 
timbered or open ; the first lies next to the river and it's under 
brush is the same with that of the low timbered bottoms with 
the addition of the broad leafed willow, Goosbury, choke 
cherry, purple currant, and honeysuckle bushis ; the open 
bottoms border on the hills, and are covered in many parts by 
the wild hyssop which rises to the hight of two feet. I 
observe that the Antelope, BufFaloe Elk and deer feed on this 
herb ; the willow of the sandbars also furnish a favorite winter 
food to these anamals as well as the growse, the porcupine, 
hare, and rabbit, about 12 0[c]lock I heard the discharge of 
several guns at the junction of the rivers, which announced to 
me the arrival of the pa[r]ty with Capt Clark; I afterwards 
learnt that they had fired on some buffaloe which they met 
with at that place, and of which they killed a cow and several 
Calves ; the latter are now fine veal. I dispatched one of the 
men to Capt Clark requesting him to send up a canoe to take 
down the meat we had killed and our baggage to his encampnt, 
which was accordingly complyed with, after I had completed 
my observations in the evening I walked down and joined the 
party at their encampment on the point of land formed bv the 
junction of the rivers ; found them all in good health, and 
much pleased at having arrived at this long wished for spot, 
and in order to add in some measure to the general pleasure 
which seemed to pervade our little community, we ordered a 
dram to be issued to each person; this soon produced the 
fiddle, and they spent the evening with much hilarity, singing 
& dancing, and seemed as perfectly to forget their past toils, 
as they appeared regardless of those to come, in the evening, 
the man I had sent up the river this morning returned, and 
reported that he had ascended it about eight miles on a 
streight line; that he found it crooked, meandering from side 
to side of the valley formed by it ; which is from four to five 
miles wide, the corrent of the river gentle, and it's bed much 
interrupted and broken bv sandbars ; at the distance ot five 
miles he passed a large Island well covered with timber, and 
three miles higher a large creek falls in on the S.E. side above 
a high bluff in which there are several stratas of coal, the 


country bordering on this river as far as he could percieve, 
like that of the Missouri, consisted of open plains, he saw 
several of the bighorned anamals in the cou[rJse of his walk ; 
but they were so shy that he could not get a shoot at them ; 
he found a large horn of one of these anamals which he 
brought with him. the bed of the Yellowstone river is entirely 
composed of sand and mud, not a stone of any kind to be 
seen in it near it's entrance. Capt Clark measured these 
rivers just above their confluence; found the bed of the Mis- 
souri 520 yards wide, the water occupying 330. it's channel 
deep, the yellowstone river including it's sandbar, 858 v'" of 
which, the water occupyed 297 yards; the depest part 12 feet; 
it was falling at this time & appeard to be nearly at it's 
summer tide, the Indians inform that the yellowstone river 
is navigable for perogues and canoes nearly to it's source in 
the Rocky Mountains, and that in it's course near these 
mountains it passes within less than half a day's march of a 
navigable part of the Missouri, it's extreem sources are adja- 
cent to those of the Missouri, river platte, and I think probably 
with some of the South branch of the Columbia river.' the 
first part of its course lies through a mountanous rocky country 
tho' well timbered and in many parts fertile ; the middle, and 
much the most extensive portion ot the river lies through a 
delightful! rich and fertile country, well covered with timber, 
intersperced with plains and meadows, and well watered ; it is 
some what broken in many parts, the lower portion consists 
of fertile open plains and meadows almost entirely, tho' it 
possesses a considerable proportion of timber on it's borders, 
the current of the upper portion is extreemly rappid, that of 
the middle and lower portions much more gentle than the 
Missouri, the water of this river is turbid, tho' dose not 
possess as much sediment as that of the Missouri, this river 

' The name Yellowstone is simplv the English of the French name Roche Jaune, 
itself without doubt translated from an earlier Indian appellation. Chittenden thinks 
that this name originated from the yellow color of the rocks which form the walls of 
the Grand Canon of the Yellowstone ; see his Telloivitone National Park (Cincin- 
nati, 1895), pp. 1-7. The name Yellowstone appears to have been first recorded 
(1798) by David Thompson, the British explorer. — Ed. 



in it's course recieves the waters of many large tributary 
str[e]ams principally from the S.E. of which the most con- 
siderable are the Tongue and bighorn rivers {&' Clark's fork) 
the former is much the largest, [rather the smallest — next in 
size Clarkes fork, and the Big horn the largest by ?nuch.) and 
heads with the river Platte and Bighorn river, as dose the 
latter with the Tongue river and the river Platte, a suficient 
quantity of limestone may be readily procured for building 
near the junction of the Missouri and Yellowstone rivers. I 
could observe no regular stratas of it, the' it lies on the sides 
of the river hills in large irregular masses, in considerable 
quantities ; it is of a light colour, and appears to be of an 
excellent quality. 

The courses and distances of the 26'.'' as the party ascended the 
Missouri, are as follow 


S. 45. E. to a point of woodland on the Star"! side 2i/^ 

S. 40. W. along the Sta"! point, opposite a bluff i 1^ 

N. 75. W. to the commencement of the wood in a bend on Star"? 

side 7. 

South. to the point of land formed by the junction of the 

Missouri and yellow stone rivers i. 

Miles— "sT 
Point of Observation N° 7. April 26"" 1805. 

On the Lar! bank of the yellowstone river 2 miles S.E. of it's junc- 
tion with the Missouri observed Equal altitudes of the O with Sextant 
and artificial horizon. 

A.M. 9. 41. 13. — P.M. 6. 49. 3. ~j Alt'! given by Sextant at the 
". 42. 52 — ". 50. 41. \-time of observation 


44- 31- — "■ 5-'- 17- -' 48? 57'- 45' 

Chronometer too fast mean time [blank space in MS.] 
]^^. the clouds this morning prevented my observing the moon 
with a. Aquilae ; and as the moon was not again observeable untill the 
I" of May, I determined not to wait, but reather to relinquish for the 
present the obtaining the necessary data to fix the longitude of this place. 
Observed Meridian altitude of O'' L. L. with Octant by the 

back observation 73? 47' 

Latitude deduced from this observation, [blank space in MS.] 


^^^"^■1 .„ , ,,/ .,/,r,/ FrUay .805 

last night was vcrry cold, tlic Thermometer stood at 32 
abov o this morning. 1 set out at an earlv hour, as it was 
cold I walked on the bank, ik in my walk Shot a beaver be 2 
Deer, one of the Deer in tolerable order, the low bottom of 
the river is generaly covered with wood[,] willows ik rose 
bushes, red berry, wild cherry & red or arrow wood inter- 
sperccd with glades The timber is Cottonwood principally. 
Elm small ash also furnish a portion of the timber. The clay 
of the bluffs appear much whiter than below, and contain 
several Stratums of coal, on the hill sides I observe pebbles 
of different size & colour. The river has been riseing for 
several days, & raised 3 inches last night, at 12 oClock 
arrived at the forks of the Roche Johne & Missouri and 
formed a camp on the point. Soon after George Drewyer 
came from Cap" Lewis &: informed me that he was a little way 
up the Rochejohne and would join me this evining, I sent 
a canoe up to Cap' Lewis and proceeded [to] measure the 
width of the [river], and find the debth. The Missouri is 
520 yards wide above the point of Yellow Stone and the water 
covers 330 yards, the YellowStone River is 858 yards wide 
includeing its sand bar, the water covers 297 yards and the 
deepest part is 12 feet water, it is at this time falling, the 
Missouri rising The Indians inform that the Yellow Stone 
River is navagable for Perogues to near its source in the Rocky 
Mountains, it has many tributary streams, principally on 
the S.E. side, and heads at no great distance from the Mis- 
souri, the largest rivers which fall into it is Tongue river 
which heads with the waters of River Piatt, and Bighorn river 
which also heads with Piatt & Tongue R the current of this 
river is said to be rapid near its mouth it is verry jentle, and 
Its water is of a whitish colour much clearer of Sediment than 
the Missouri, the Countrey on this river is said to be broken 
in Its whole course & contains a great deel of wood, the 
countrey about its mouth is verry fine, the bottoms on either 
side is wooded with Cotton wood, ash, Elm, &! near the 
banks of the river back is higher bottoms and covered with 
red berry. Goose berry & rose bushes &. interspersed with 


small open Glades, and near the high land is Generally open 
rich bottoms, at our arrival at the forks I observed a Drove 
of BufFalow Cows & Calves on a sand bar in the point, I 
directed the men to kill the fattest Cox, and 3 or 4 calves, 
which they did and let the others pass, the cows are poor, 
calves fine veele. 

Course & Distance 26"" of April 

S. 45° E 2 i^ miles to a point of wood land on the Starboard Side 

S. 40° W. 1 1^ miles on the S. p' a bluff opposit 

N. 75° W. 3 miles to the commencement of a wood bottom in a 

bend to the Sfl Side 
South 1 mile to the junction of Rochejhone or yellowstone 

River & the Mis[s]ouri 

Capt Lewis joined me in the evening after takeing equal 
altitudes a little way up the Yellowstone river the countrey 
In every direction is plains except the moul[d] bottoms of the 
river, which are covered with some indifferent timber such as 
Cotton wood. Elm & small ash, with different kind of S[h]rubs 
& bushes on the forks about i mile from the point at which 
place the 2 rivers are near each other a butifull low leavel 
plain commences, and extends up the Missouri & back, this 
plain is narrow at its commencement and widens as the Mis- 
souri bends north, and is bordered by an extencive wood land 
for many miles up the Yellow Stone river, this low plain is 
not Subject to over flow, appear to be a fiew inches above high 
water mark and affords a butifull commanding situation for a 
fort near the commencement of the Prarie, about [blank 
space in MS.] miles from the Point & [blank space in MS.] 
yards from the Missouri a small lake is Situated, from this 
lake the plain rises gradually to a high butifull countrey, the 
low Plain continues for some distance up both rivers on the 
Yellow Stone it is wide & butifull ops'! the point on the S. 
Side is some high timbered land, about i^ miles below on 
the same side a little distance from the water is an elivated 
plain. Several of the party was up the Yellow Stone R several 
miles, & informed that it meandered through a butifull coun- 
[342 ] 


trey Joseph Fields discovered a large creek falling into the 
Yellowstone River on the S E. Side 8 miles up near which he 
saw a big horned animal, he found in the Prarie the horn of 
one of those animals which was large and appeared to have 
laid several years I Saw maney buffalow dead on the banks of 
the river in different places some of them eaten by the white 
bears & wolves all except the skin & bones, others entire, 
those animals either drounded in attempting to cross on the 
ice dureing the winter or swiming across to bluff banks where 
they could not get out & too weak to return we saw several 
in this Situation, emence numbers of antelopes in the forks 
of the river, Buffalow & Elk & Deer is also plenty, beaver 
is in every bend. I observe that the Magpie Goose duck &c 
Eagle all have their nests in the Same neighbourhood, and it 
is not uncommon for the Magpie to build in a few rods of the 
eagle, the nests of this bird is built verrv strong with sticks 
covered verry thickly with one or more places through which 
they enter or escape, the Goose I make no doubt falls a pray 
to those vicious eagles 

QLewisQ Saturday Afrit zj'!' 1805 

Previous to our seting out this morning I made the follow- 
ing observations. 

Point of observation N" 8. 
Suns magnetic azimuth by Circumferentor N. 81° E. 

h m • 

Time by Chronometer A.M. 9. 27. 14. 

Altitude by sextant 44° 56^ 30'.' 

Sun's magnetic azimuth by Circumf'.' N. 82° E. 

h m s 

Time by Chronometer A. M. 9. 34. 29. 

Altitude by Sextant 47. 22. - . 

Sun's Magnetic azimuth by CircumP/ N. 83. E. 

h m I 

Time by Chronometer. A.M. 9. 42. 17. 

Altitude by Sextant 49. 56. 30. 



This morning I walked through the point formed by the 
junction of the rivers ; the woodland extends about a mile, 
when the rivers approach each other within less than half a 
mile ; here a beatifuU level low plain commences and extends 
up both rivers for many miles, widening as the rivers recede 
from each other, and extending back half a mile to a plain 
about 12 feet higher than itself; the low plain appears to be a 
few inches higiier than high water mark and of course will not 
be liable to be overflown ; tho' where it joins the high plain a 
part of the Missouri when at it's greatest hight, passes through 
a channel of 60 or 70 yards wide and falls into the yellowstone 
river, on the Missouri about i]^ miles from the entrance of 
the yellowstone river, and between this high and low plain, a 
small lake is situated about 200 yards wide extending along the 
edge of the high plain parallel with the Missouri about one 
mile, on the point of the high plain at the lower extremity of 
this lake I think would be the most eligible site for an estab- 
lishment between this low plain and the Yellow stone river 
their is an extensive body of timbered land extending up the 
river for many miles, this site recommended is about 400 
yards distant from the Missouri and about double that distance 
from the river yellow stone ; from it the high plain, rising very 
gradually, extends back about three miles to the hills, and con- 
tinues with the same width between these hills and the timbered 
land on the yellowstone river, up that stream, for seven or 
eight miles; and is one of the ha[n]dsomest plains I ever be- 
held, on the Missouri side the hills sircumscribe it's width, 
& at the distance of three miles up that river from this cite, it 
is not more than 400 yards wide. Capt Clark thinks that the 
lower extremity of the low plane would be most eligible for 
this establishment; it is true that it is much nearer both rivers, 
and might answer very well, but I think it reather too low to 
venture a permanent establishment, particularly it built ot 
brick or other durable materials, at any considerable expence ; 
for so capricious, and versatile are these rivers, that it is diffi- 
cult to say how long it will be, untill they direct the force of 
their currents against this narrow part of the low plain, which 
when they do, must shortly yeald to their influence ; in 


such case a few years only would be necessary, for the annihi- 
lation of the plain, and with it the fortification.' I continued 
my walk on shore; at ii. A. M. the wind became very hard 
from N.W. insomuch that the perogues and canoes were unable 
either to proceede or pass the river to me; I was under the 
necessity therefore of shooting a goose and cooking it for my 
dinner, the wind abated about 4. P.M. and the party pro- 
ceeded tho' I could not conveniently join them untill night, 
altho' game is very abundant and gentle, we only kill as 
much as is necessary for food. I believe that two good hunters 
could conveniently supply a regiment with provisions. for 
several days past we have observed a great number of buffaloe 
lying dead on the shore, some of them entire and others partly 
devoured by the wolves and bear. those anamals either 
drownded during the winter in attempting to pass the river on 
the ice during the winter or by swiming acr[o]ss at present to 
bluff banks which they are unable to ascend, and feeling them- 
selves too weak to return remain and perish for the want of 
food ; in this situation we met with several little parties of 
them, beaver are very abundant, the party kill several of them 
every day. The Eagles, Magpies, and gees have their nests 
in trees adjacent to each other ; the magpy particularly appears 
tond of building near the Eagle, as we scarcely see an Eagle's 
nest unaccompanyed with two or three Magpies nests within a 
short distance. The bald Eagle are more abundant here than 
I ever observed them in anv part of the countrv. 

Courses and distances 27"' April 1805. 

N. 9° E. to the upper part of the timber on Lar'! in the point, 
the same being the commencement of the low 
plain, at which the .Missouri and yellowstone riv- 
ers are about 250 yards distant. 

West. to the lower part of" the timber in the bend on Lar^ 


1 A conclusion justified by the notable changes which have occurrej during the 
century past, in the courses of these rivers at their confluence. — Ed. 

[345 ] 


N. 32. W. to a point of the timbered bottom on Lad opposite 
to a low bluff, between two points of wooded bot- 
tom i/^ a mile distant from each other ; a beautifull 
plain back, several high open situations, between 
the woodlands on the Star"*, side 3 

West. to a point of small willows on the Star'? side,^ opposite 

a low white bluff bordering a beautifull rising plain; 
some woodland below this bluff on the Lar'? side, 
and a thick wooded bottom on Star"* side, on this 
course the river is wide, and crouded with sandbars, 
a little below the low bluff on the Lar'^ side, a 
timbered bottom commences; here the country 
rises gradually from the river on the Lar'! side 3 - 

Miles "87~ 

CClark:3 27^ of April Satturday 1805 

atter tak:e[ing] the azmuth of the Sun & brackfasting we 
set out wind moderate & a head, at i i oClock the wind 
rose and continued to blow verry hard a head from the N. W. 
untill 4 oClock PM, which blew the sand off the Points in 
such clouds as almost covered us on the opposit bank, at 4 
I set out from my unpleasent Situation and proceeded on, 
Cap! Lewis walked on shore in the Point to examine & view 
the Countrey and could not get to the boats untill night, Saw 
great numbers of Goats or antilopes. Elk, Swan Gees & Ducks, 
no bufFalow to day I saw several beaver and much sign, I 
shot one in the head which imediately sunk, altho the game 
of different kinds are in abundance we kill nothing but what 
we can make use of 

Course, distance the 27'.'' of April 

N. 9° E I mile to the upper part of the wood in the point and com- 
mencement of a butifull elivated plain at which place 
the Yellow Stone river is about 250 yards distant from 
the Mi [sjsouri 

1 At the site of old Fort Union — a post built in 1830 by the American Fur 
Company J see Chittenden's account of it (Amer. Fur Trade, pp. 959, 960). Ed. 



West 1 mile to the lower part of the timber in a bend to the 

Lar'f Side back of which and on the river below is [a] 
high bottom, and the upper plains are not so high as 
below and butifull as far as can be seen 

N. 32° VV 3 miles to a point of the timbered bottom on the La'.' Side 
opposit a low blurt" between two points of wooded 
bottom y, a mile distant from each a butifull plain 
back, several high open situations between the wood 
land in the S. bend. 

West 3 miles to a point of small Willows on the S^ Side opposit 

miles 8 ^ '°^ white bluft' bordering a butifull riseing Plain, 
some wood land below this bluff" on the L.S. and a 
thick wooded bottom on the S. Side in this course 
the river is wide and crouded with sand bars, a little 
above the low bluff" on the L.S. a timbered bottom 
commences, here the countrey runs gradually from 
the river on the L.S. 



Chapter VIII 


Lewis's Journal, April 28 — May 5, 1805 
Clark's Journal, April 28 — May 5 

[Lewis:] Sunday April zi'!" 1805. 

SET out this morning at an early hour ; the wind was 
favourable and we employed our sails to advantage. 
Capt Clark walked on shore this morning, and I pro- 
ceeded with the party, the country through which we passed 
today is open as usual and very broken on both sides near the 
river hills, the bottoms are level fertile and partially covered 
with timber, the hills and bluffs exhibit their usual mineral 
appearances, some birnt hills but no appearance of Pumice- 
stone; coal is in great abundance and the salts still increase 
in quantity ; the banks of the river and sandbars are incrusted 
with it in many places and appear perfectly white as if covered 
with snow or frost, the woods are now green, tho' the plains 
and meadows appear to abate of the verdure those below 
exhibited some days past, we past three small runs today, 
two falling in on the Star"! and one on the Lar"! side, they are 
but small afford but little water and head a few miles back in 
the hills, we saw great quantities of game today; consisting 
of the common and mule deer, Elk, Buffaloe, and Antelopes ; 
also tour brown bear, one of which was fired on and wounded 
by one of the party but we did not get it; the beaver have 
cut great quantities of timber; saw a tree nearly 3 feet in 
diameter that had been felled by them. Capt. Clark in the 
course of his walk killed a deer and a goose; & saw three 
black bear ; he thinks the bottoms are not so wide as they 
have been for some days past. 

[ 348 ] 


Courses and distances iS"" of April. 


2 ■/ 

North. to a point of timber on Lar.' side. 

N. 40. W. to the upper part of the point on Lar' opposite to a 

high rugged bluf i. 

S. 50. W. to a high bluff on the Lar'f side just above a tim- 
bered bottom, and opposite a point of woodland 
on Star"! side 2 3^ 

S. 85. W. to the center of a bend on Lar"! side. i. 

N. 25. W. to a point of timbered land on Lar'? passing a point 

on Star? side at i h;^ M'.' 3. 

N. 18. W. to the lower point of the timber in a bend on 

Star*! side 2. 

to a point of woodland on Star^ side. 4. 

to a high bluff point on Lar^ side, the river making 

a considerable bend to S.E. 2. 

to a point of woodland on the Lar'! side 2. 

to a high bluff point on the Star'? side. i. 

to a point of woodland on Star? side. 3. 

Miles — 24. 
















[Clark 28'* of April SunJay 1S05 

a tine day river falling, wind favourable from the S.E. and 
moderate, I walked on shore to view the countrey, from 
the top of the high hills, I beheld a broken & open countrey 
on both Sides, near the river some verry handsom low plains, 
I kill'' a Deer & a goose, saw three black bear great numbers 
of Elk antelopes & 2 Gangues of Buffalow. The hills & 
Bluffs show the stratums of coal, and burnt appearances in 
maney places, In and about them I could find no appearance 
of Pumice Stone, the wood land have a green appearance, 
the Plains do not look so green as below. The bottoms are 
not so wide this afternoon as below. Saw four bear this even- 
ing, one of the men Shot at one of them. The antilopes are 
nearly red, on that part which is Subject to change i. e. the 
sides & -/t, of the back from the head, the other part as white 
as Snow, 2 small runs fall in on the S. Side and one this 
evening on the Lar"* Side those runs head at a fiew miles in 
the hills and discharge but little water, the Bluffs in this part 















as also below Shew different stratums of coal or carbonated 
wood, and coloured earths, such as dark brown, yellow a 
lightish brown, & a dark, red &c'. 

Course Sc distance the iH't" of April 

21^ miles to a point of timber on the La** Side 

1 to the upper part of the point on the L. Side opposit 
is a high rugid BiufFon the S.S. 

2 3^ To a high bluff on the L'' Side opposit to a point of 
woods & just above a wood 

I. To the center of a bend on the La*" Side 
3. To a point of timbered land on the L'? Side passing a 
point on the S' Side at i ^^ miles 
N. 18° \V. 2. To the lower point of a timber in a bend to the Star- 
board Side. 
To a point of wood Land on the S'f Side 
To a high blufF point on the L. Side the river makeing 

a considerable bend S.E. 
to a point of wood land on the Lar^ Side 
to a high Bluff p' on the Sf Side 
To a point of wood land on the St** Side 

I^Lewis Q Monday April zt)!^' 1805. 

Set out this morning at the usual hour; the wind was mod- 
erate; I walked on shore with one man. about 8. A.M. we 
fell in with two brown or yellow [whitel bear ; both of which 
we wounded ; one of them made his escape, the other after my 
firing on him pursued me seventy or eighty yards, but fortu- 
nately had been so badly wounded that he was unable to 
pursue so closely as to prevent my charging my gun ; we 
again repeated our fir[e] and killed him. it was a male not 
fully grown, we estimated his weight at 300 lb' not having the 
means of ascertaining it precisely. The legs of this bear are 
somewhat longer than those of the black, as are it's tailons and 
tusks incomparably larger and longer, the testicles, which in 
the black bear are placed pretty well back between the thyes 
and contained in one pouch like those of the dog and most 
quadrupeds, are in the yellow or brown bear placed much 


4? w. 



10? W. 



80? w. 



45? W. 



80? W. 




further forward, and are suspended in separate pouches from 
two to four inches asunder; it's colour is yellowish brown, 
the eyes small, black, and piercing; the front of the fore legs 
near the feet is usually black; the fur is finer thicker and 
deeper than that of the black bear, these are all the particulars 
in which this anamal appeared to me to differ from the black 
bear;' it is a much more furious and formidable anamal, and 
will frequently pursue the hunter when wounded, it is asston- 
ishing to see the wounds they will bear before they can be put 
to death, the Indians may well fear this anamal equiped as 
they generally are with their bows and arrows or indifferent 
fuzees, but in the hands of skillfull riflemen they are by no 
means as formidable or dangerous as thev have been repre- 
sented." game is still very abundant we can scarcely cast our 
eyes in any direction without percieving deer Elk Buffaloe or 
Antelopes. The quantity of wolves appear to increase in the 
same proportion; they generally hunt in parties of six eight or 
ten ; they kill a great number ot the Antelopes at this season ; 
the Antelopes are yet meagre and the females are big with 
young; the wolves take them most generally in attempting to 
swim the river; in this manner my dog caught one drowned it 
and brought it on shore ; they are but clumsey swimers, tho' 
on land when in good order, they are extreemly fleet and 
dureable. we have frequently seen the wolves in pursuit of 
the Antelope in the plains; they appear to decoy a single one 
from a flock, and then pursue it, alturnately relieving each 
other untill they take it. on joining Capt Clark he informed 
me that he had seen a female and faun of the bighorned 
anamal ; that they ran for some distance with great aparent 
ease along the side of the river bluff" where it was almost per- 

l By " white bear," here and elsewhere in Lewis and Clark's journals, must not 
be understood the white or polar bear of Arctic regions, but the animal now known 
as "grizzly bear" {Ursuj horrihilis), first adequately described by our explorers. It 
was technically named in 1815. — Ed. 

" ' As no wound except through the head or heart is mortal, they frequently fall a 
sacrifice if they miss their aim. He rather attacks than avoids a man, and such is 
the terror which he has inspired, that the Indians who go in quest of him paint them- 
selves and perform all the superstitious rites customary when they make war on a 
neighboring nation. — Biddle (i, p. zoo). 



pendicular; two of the party fired on them while in motion 
without effect, we took the flesh of the bear on board and 
proceeded. Capt. Clark walked on shore this evening, killed a 
deer, and saw several of the bighorned anamals. there is more 
appearance of coal today than we have yet seen, the stratas are 
6 feet thick in some instances; the earth has been birnt in 
many places, and always appears in stratas on the same level 
with the stratas of coal, we came too this evening in the 
mouth of a little river, v/hich falls in on the Star*! side, this 
stream is about 50 yards wide from bank to bank ; the water 
occupyes about 15 yards, the banks are of earth only, abrupt, 
tho' not high — the bed, is of mud principally. Capt Clark, 
who was up this streeam about three miles, informed me that 
it continued about the same width, that it's current was gentle 
and it appeared navigable for perogues it meanders through 
an extensive, fertile, and beautifull vally as far as could bee 
seen about N. 30" W. there was but one solitary tree to be 
seen on the banks of this river after it left the bottom of the 
Missouri, the water of this river is clear, with a brownish 
yelow tint, here the highlands receede from th; Missouri, 
leaving the vally formed by the river from seven to eight 
miles wide, and reather lower then usual. This stream my 
friend Capt. C. named Marthas river.^ 

Courses and distances of the 29"" of April. 


N. 45. W. to a point of woodland on Lar"! side opposite to a 

high bluff on Star") 3. 

West. to a point of woodland Staf! opposite to a bluff 2. 

N. 80. W. along the Star'} point opposite a high sharp bluff i.}4 

N. 45. W. to a point of woodland Lar'} opposite to a bluff 2. 

N. 55. W. to a point of woodland Lar4 opposite to a bluff 3. 

N. 65. W. to a bluff point on Stari side i.j{ 

S. 30 W. to the upper point of the high timber on the Lar'' 

side in a bend of the river 3 

1 In the MS. here follows a line afterward crossed out, " in honour of Miss M.," 
followed by another initial which cannot be deciphered — but in Clark's entry, post, 
we read, " in honor to the Selebrated M. F." This river is now known as the Big 
Muddy. — Ed. 







S. 85 W. to a point of woodland on StaH opposite a blufF i\ 

N. 55. W. to the commencement of a bluff on Star) side, 

passing a sand point at 2^ miles on Lar'! side 3.^ 

S. 75. W. to a point of woodland on Lar) passing the poil 
of a sandbar on Star"! , the river making a deep 
bend to the South i.^ 

S. 75. VV. to the entrance of a {Marthys) river in a bend on 
Star"! where we encamped for the night, this 
stream we call [blank space in MS.] 3. 


[^Clark:] i^",', of April Monday 1805 

Set out this morning at the usial hour, the wind is moderate 
ik. from the N.E. had not proceeded far eer we Saw a female 
& her faun of the Bighorn animal on the top of a BlufF lying, 
the noise we made allarmed them and they came down on the 
side of the blufF which had but little slope being nearly pur- 
pindicular, I directed two men to kill those anamals, one 
went on the top and the other man near the water they had 
two shots at the doe while in motion without effect, Those 
animals run & Skiped about with great ease on this declivity 
& appeared to prefur it to the leavel bottom or plain. Cap! 
Lewis & one man walk'' on shore and he killed a yellow Bear 
& the man with him wounded one other, after getting the 
flesh of the bear on bord which was not far from the place we 
brackfast, we proceeded on Saw 4 gangus of bufFalow and great 
numbers of antelopes in every direction also saw Elk and 
several wolves, I walked on Shore in the evening & killed a 
Deer which was so meager as to be unfit for use. The hills 
contain more coal, and has a greater appearance of being burnt 
that [than] below, the burnt parts appear on a parrilel with 
the stratiums of coal, we came too in the mouth of a Little 
river on the S.S. which is about 50 or 60 yards from banks to 
bank, I was up this Stream 3 miles it continues its width and 
glides with a gentle current, its water is about 15 yards wide 
at this time, and appears to be navagable for canoes &^ it 
meanders through a butifull & extencive vallie as far as can be 
Seen about N 30' W. I saw only a single tree in this fertile 


vallie The water of the River is clear of a yellowish colour, 
we call this river Martheys river in honor to the Selebrated 
M.F. Here the high land widen from five to Eight miles 
and much lower than below. Saw several of the big horn 
animals this evening. The Wolves distroy great numbers of 
the antilopes by decoying those animals singularly out in the 
plains and prosueing them alternetly, those antelopes are 
curious and will approach any thing which appears in motion 
near them &? 

Course & Distance the 29",*; of April 

N. 45° W 3 

West 2 

N 80? W. I i 

N. 45? W. ^ 

N. 55' 

N. 65' 
S. 30' 

S. 85' 
N 55 

S 75 
N. 75 





to a point of wood land on the L** Side ops') to a high 

Bluff on the Star"* Side 
to a wood land on the Sf* Side ops'! a Bluff 
on the Sf* point, a high Sharp bluff 
to a point of wood land on the L. Side, a high bluff 

opposit on the S.S. 
to a point of timbered land on the Lard Side a Bluff 

on the S. Side 
to a Bluff point on the Star") Side, 
to the upper point of a high timber on the L. Side in 

a lard bend of the river 
to a p! of timber on Star'? S^ ops'! a bluff 
to the commencement of a bluff on S.S. pass^ a sand 

p! at ly, miles on the Lar^ S'? 
to a point of wood land on the passing a sand bar the 

river makeing a Deep bend to the South 
to the enterence of a river on the Star** Side in a bend, 

where we encamped for the night. 

[^Lewis:] Tuesday April la"'. 1S05. 

Set out at sunrise, the wind blew hard all last night, and 
continued to blow pretty hard all day, but not so much, as to 
compell us to ly by. the country as usual is bare of timber; 
the river bottoms are level and fertile and extensive, but possess 
but little timber and that of an indifferent quality even of it's 
kind; principally low cottonwood, either too small for build- 
[ 354 ] 


ing, or for plank, or broken and dead at top and unsound in 
the center of the trunk, saw great quantities of game as usual. 
Cap! Clark walked on shore the greater part of the day, the 
Interpreter, Charbono and his Indian woman attended him. 
past some old Indian lodges built of drift wood; they appear 
to be of antient date and not recently inhabited. I walked on 
shore this evening and killed a buck Elk, in tolerable order; 
it appeared to me to be the largest I had seen, and was there- 
fore induced to measure it ; found it five feet three inches from 
the point of the hoof, to the top of the sholders ; the leg and 
hoof being placed as nearly as possible in the same position 
they would have been had the anamal been standing. 

Courses and distances of 30'.'' April. 

S. 15° VV. to a point of timbered land on the Star^ side passing 

a sand point at 3| of a M^ Lar'f 2 V^ 

S. 22. W. to the upper point of the high timber in the center of 

a bend Lar') side at the commencement of a blutf i i^ 
S. 85. VV. to a point of timbered land on Star") side opposite 

to a bluff. i_ 

S. 75. VV. to a point of timber at the upper part of a blutf in a 

bend on Lar"? side. 
N. 40. VV. to the point of a sandbar on the Lar^ side, passing a 

willow point at two miles and a large sandbar on 

Star! r 

S. 40. VV. to a point of woodland on Starl opposite to a bluff 

on Lar^ the river making a considerable bend on 

Lar'! side 7 1/ 

N. 70. VV. to a point of woodland on the Lar'' side, passing, at 

the commencement of this course, a large sand 

Island in the Lar4 bend. -j. 

S. 25. VV. to the upper part of the high timber on the Lar^ side. 2 y^ 
West. to a point of high timber on the Lar*l side, a large 

sand island in the bend to the Star? side. 3 y^ 

N. 80. VV. to a point of high woods on the Lar^ side opposite 

to which we encamped on a sandbar Star^ side ' r 


Miles 24. 

1 At the present town of Brockton, Mont. — Ed. 

[ 355 ] 


[Clark:] 30"; of April Tuesday 1805 

The wind blew hard from the N E ail last night, we Set 
out at Sunrise the wind blew hard the greater part of the day 
and part of the time favourable, we did not He by to day on 
account of the wind. I walked on Shore to day our interpreter 
& his squar followed, in my walk the squar found & brought 
me a bush something like the currunt, which she said bore a 
delicious froot and that great quantitis grew on the Rocky 
Mountains. This shrub was in bloom has a yellow flower 
with a deep cup, the froot when ripe is yellow and hangs in 
bunches like cheries. Some of those berries yet remained on 
the bushes. The bottoms above the mouth of the last river is 
extencive level & fertile and covered with indifferent timber in 
the points, the upland appear to rise gradually, I saw Great 
numbers of antelopes, also scattering Buffalow, Elk, Deer, 
wolves. Gees, ducks & Crows. I Killed 2 Gees which we 
dined on to day. Cap" Lewis walked on Shore and killed an 
elk this evening, and we came too & camped on the S.S. 
the countrey on both sides have a butitull appearance. 

Course & Distance the 30'.'' of April 


2 1/^ to a point of timbered land on the S"* Side passed a 

sand point at 3^ of a mile L.S. 
I j/C to the upper point of the high timber on the L'? Side 

in a bend a Bluft' on the Lar"! 
I to a point of timbered land on the Sf* Side opposit to 
a bluff on the Lard Side 
i^ to a point of timber at the upper part of a bluff in a 
bend to the Lar"' Side 
N. 40° W. 5 to a point of a Sand bar on the Lar"* Side passing a 
Willow point at 2 miles, and a large Sand bar on 
S. 40° W. 31^ to a point of wood land on SfJ Side opposit to a Bluff 
on the L. Side the [river] makeing a considerable 
bend L.S 
N. 70° W. 3 to a point of wood land on the Lar"* Side passing at 
the commencement of this course a large sand 
Island in the Lar"* bend. 
[ ?^6 1 


15" w. 


22° W. 


85? w. 


75- W 


S. 25^ W. 2^ miles to the upper part of a high timber on the Lar"" 

West ^y, to a point of high timber on the Lar' Side a large 

sand Island in the bend to the Sf* Side. 
N. 80^ W 1 to a point of high woods on the Larboard Side 

CLewis:] IVednesJay May i". 1805. 

Set out this morning at an early [hour], the wind being 
favourable we used our sales which carried us on at a good pace 
untill about 12 OC? when the wind became so high that the 
small canoes were unable to proceed one of them which 
seperated from us just befor the wind became so violent, is 
now lying on the opposite side of the river, being unable to 
rejoin us in consequence of the waves, which during those gusts 
run several feet high, we came too on the Lar' shore in a 
handsome bottom well stocked with cottonwood timber; here 
the wind compelled us to spend the ballance of the day. we 
sent out some hunters who killed a buffaloe, an Elk, a goat 
and two beaver, game is now abundant, the country appears 
much more pleasant and fertile than that we have passed for 
several days ; the hills are lower, the bottoms wider, and better 
stocked with timber, which consists principally of cottonwood, 
not however of large size ; the under-growth willow on the 
verge of the river and sandbars, rose bushes, red willow and 
the broad leafed willow in the bottom lands ; the high country 
on either side of the river is one vast plain, intirely destitute 
of timber, but is apparently fertile, consisting of a dark rich 
mellow looking lome. John Shields sick today with the rheu- 
matism. Shannon killed a bird of the plover kind, weight 
one pound, it measured from the tip of the toe, to the ex- 
tremity of the beak, i. foot lo. Inches; from tip to tip of 
wings when extended 2 F. 5 L; Beak 3 S; inches; tale 314 
inches; leg and toe 10 In! the eye black, piercing, prominent 
and moderately large, the legs are flat thin, slightly imbricated 
and of a pale sky blue colour, being covered with feathers as 
far as the mustle extends down it, which is about half of it's 
I 357] 


length, it has four toes on each foot, three of which, are 
connected by a web, the fourth is small and placed at the heel 
about the ^ of an inch up the leg. the nails are black and 
short, that of the middle toe is extreemly singular, consisting 
of two nails the one laping on or overlaying the other, the 
upper one somewhat the longest and sharpest, the tale con- 
tains eleven feathers of equal length, & of a bluish white colour, 
the boddy and underside of the wings, except the large feathers 
of the i"! & 2"'f joints of the same, are white, as are also the 
feathers of the upper part of the 4"!' joint of the wing and part 
of those of the 3'^ adjacent thereto, the large feathers of the 
i'.' or pinion and the 2"^ joint are black; a part of the larger 
feathers of the 2"^ joint on the upper side and all the small 
feathers which cover the upper part of the wings are black, as 
are also the tuft of long feathers on each side of the body 
above the joining of the wing, leaving however a stripe of 
white between them on the back. the head and neck are 
shaped much like the grey plover, and are of a light brickdust 
brown ; the beak is black and flat, largest where it joins the 
head, and from thence becoming thiner and tapering to a very 
sharp point, the upper chap being yi of an inch the longest 
turns down at the point and forms a little hook, the nostrils, 
which commence near the head are long, narrow, connected 
and paraellel with the beak ; the beak is much curved, the 
curvature being upwards in stead of downwards as is common 
with most birds; the substance of the beak precisely resembles 
whalebone at a little distance, and is quite as flexable as that 
substance, their note resembles that of the grey plover, tho' 
is reather louder and more varied, their habits appear also to 
be the same, with this difference; that it sometimes rests on the 
water and swims which I do not recollect having seen the 
plover do. this bird which I shall henceforth stile the Missouri 
plover, generally feeds about the shallow bars of the river, to 
collect it's food which consists of [blank space in MS.], it 
immerces it's beak in the water and throws it's head and beak 
from side to side at every step it takes.' 

1 The avocet (^Recuruirostra Americana). — • Ed. 





Courses and distances of this day 

N. 88. W. to the upper point of some high timber in a bend on 
the Star'i side 

South. to the upper point of a timbered bottom Lar? S'^ 

S. 26° W. to a blufF on the Lar-f side 

S. 6o° W. to a single tree on a point Lar'? side. 

West. to a point of woodland Lar'? side. 

S. 6o? VV. to a point of woodland just beneath the upper point 
of an elivatcd plane on Star! side, one mile short 
of which we encamped on the Lar'! 

C^'*''' -3 May the V,\ ITednisJay 1 805. 

We set out at sun rise under a stiff Breeze from the East, 
the morning cool & cloudy, one man J. Shields sick with 
rhumetism. one of the men (Shannon) shot a Gull or pleaver, 
which is about the Size of an Indian hen, with a Sharp pointed 
bill turning up & 4 Inches long, the head and neck of a light 
brown, the breast, the under feathers of the 2".'' and 3"! joint of 
the wings, the Short feathers on the upper part of the 3"^ joint 
of the wings, down the back the rump ik. tail white. The 
large feathers of the i" joints of the wing the upper feathers 
of the 2'' joints of the wings, on the body on the joints of the 
wing and the bill is black, the legs long and of a skie blue. 
The feet webed &^ This fowl may be properly stiled the 
Missouri Pleaver. the wind became verry Hard and we put 
too on the L. Side, as the wind continued with some degree of 
violence and the waves too high for the Canoes we were obliged 
to stay all day 

Course & Distance i" of jVIay 


N. 88? W. \y, to the upper point of some high timber in a bend to 

the Sf! Side 
South 2 to the upper part of a timber L"* Side 

S. 26° W. I ;i to a Bluff on the Lar"! Side 
'S 60° W I to a Single tree on a point [on] the Lar"" Side 
West 2 to a point [of] wood land Lar"" Side 

S. 6o- W. 2 to a wood at the upper part of an elivated plain on the 
10 S. Side, one mile short of which we camped 



[^LewisQ Thunday May 2"? 1805. 

The wind continued violent all night nor did it abate much 
of it's violence this morning, when at daylight it was attended 
with snow which continued to fall untill about 10 A.M. 
being about one inch deep, it formed a singular contrast with 
the vegitation which was considerably advanced, some flowers 
had put forth in the plains, and the leaves of the cottonwood 
were as large as a dollar, sent out some hunters who killed % 
deer 3 Elk and several buffaloe ; on our way this evening we 
also shot three beaver along the shore ; these anamals in con- 
sequence of not being hunted are extreemlv gentle, where they 
are hunted they never leave their lodges in the day, the flesh 
of the beaver is esteemed a delecacy among us ; I think the 
tale a most delicious morsal, when boiled it resembles in flavor 
the fresh tongues and sounds of the codfish, and is usually 
sufficiently large to aflx)rd a plentiful! meal for two men. 
Joseph Fields one of the hunters who was out today found 
several yards of scarlet cloth which had been suspended on the 
bough of a tree near an old indlan hunting cam[p], where it 
had been left as a sacrefice to the deity bv the indians, prob- 
ably of the Assinniboin nation, it being a custom with them as 
well as all the nations inhabiting the waters of the Missouri so 
far as they are known to us, to offer or sacrefice in this manner 
to the deity wat-ever they may be possessed off^ which they 
think most acceptable to him, and very honestlv making their 
own feelings the test of those of the deity offer him the article 
which they most prize themselves, this being the most usual 
method of we[r]shiping the great sperit as they term the 
deity, is practiced on interesting occasions, or to produce the 
happy eventuation of the important occurrances incident to 
human nature, such as relief from hungar or mallady, protec- 
tion from their enemies or the delivering them into their 
hands, and with such as cultivate, to prevent the river's over- 
flowing and distroying their crops &c. s[a]crefices of a 
similar kind are also made to the deceased by their friends 
and relatives, the are was very piercing this evening the 
[water] friezed on the oars as they rowed, the wind dying at 
5. P.M. we set out. 



Courses and distance 2':' May. 
S. 70? E. to the upper point of the timber on the Lar'f side in 
a bend, passing a point of timber on the Lar! 
side at j/^ of a mile 2 

S. 10° E. to a point of wood land on the Star'^ side ^ 

S. 30' W. to a point of low timber on the Lar'! side, a little 
above which on the Star? side, we encamped, hav- 
ing passed some wider fertile bottoms and beat- 
ifull high level plains 2 

every thing which is incomprehensible to the indians they 
call /^ig medicine, and is the opperation of the presnts [presence 
— Ed.] and power of the great sperit. this morning one of 
the men shot the indian dog that had followed us for several 
days, he would steal their cooked provision. 

[[Clark:] May 2"^ Thursday 1805 

The wind blew verry hard all the last night, this morning 
about sunrise began to Snow, (The Thermomt' at 28. abov o) 
and continued untill about 10 oClock, at which time it seased, 
the wind continued hard untill about 2 P.M. the Snow which 
fell to day was about i In deep, a verry extraodernarey cli- 
mate, to behold the trees Green &c flowers spred on the plain, 
& Snow an inch deep, we Set out about 3 oClock and pro- 
ceeded on about five Yz miles and encamped on the St'' Side, 
the evening verry cold. Ice freesing to the Ores. I shot a 
large beaver & Drewyer three in walking on the bank, the 
flesh of those animals the party is fond of eating &■: 

Course 5c Distance 2'' May 

S. 70° E. 2 miles to the upper point of the timber on the Lar^ Side 
in a bend, passing a point of timber on the L.S. at 
a quarter of a mile 
S. 10? E y, mile to a point of wood Land on the Starboard Side 
S. 30° W 2 miles to a point of Low timber on the Lar^ Side a little 
above which on the Starboard Side we encamped 

2 deer and 3 Elk killed 


[Lewis G FrUay May ^-^-f iSos- 

The morning being very could we did not set out as early 
as usual ; ice formed on a kettle of water j^ of an inch thick, 
the snow has melted generally in the bottoms, but the hills 
still remain covered, on the lar"" side at the distance of 2 
miles we passed a curious collection of bushes which had been 
tyed up in the form of a faciene [fascine — Ed.] and standing 
on end in the open bottom it appeared to be about 30 feet high 
and ten or twelve feet in diameter, this we supposed to have 
been placed there by the Indians, as a sacrefice for some pur- 
pose. The wind continued to blow hard from the West but 
not so strong as to compel us to ly by. Capt Clark walked 
on shore and killed an Elk which he caused to be butch[er]ed 
by the time I arrived with the party, here we halted and 
dined being about 12 OC' our usual time of halting for that 
purpose, after dinner Capt. Clark pursued his walk, while I 
continued with the party, it being a rule which we had estab- 
lished, never to be absent at the same time from the party, 
the plains or high lands are much less elivated than they were, 
not being more than from 50 to 60 feet above the river 
bottom, which is also wider than usual being from 5 to 9 M' 
in width ; traces of the ancient beds of the river are visible in 
many places through the whole extent of this valley, since 
the hills have become lower the appearance of the stratas of 
coal burnt hills and pumice stone have in a great measure 
ceased ; I saw none today, we saw vast quantities of Buffaloe, 
Elk, deer principally of the long tale kind, Antelope or goats, 
beaver, geese, ducks, brant and some swan, near the entrance 
of the river mentioned in the 10'? course of this day, we saw 
an unusual number of Porcupines from which we determined 
to call the river after that anamal, and accordingly denomi- 
nated it Porcupine river} this stream discharges itself into the 
Missouri on the Star"! side 2000 miles above the mouth of the 
latter, it is a beatifull bold runing stream, 40 yards wide at 
it's entrance ; the water is transparent, it being the first of this 
discription that I have yet seen discharge itself into the Mis- 

1 Now Poplar River ; the name Porcupine is in our day applied to a branch of 
Milk River. — Ed. 



souri ; before it enters a large sand bar through which it dis- 
charges itself into the missouri it's banks and bottom are 
formed of a stiff' blue and black clay ; it appears to be navi- 
gable for canoes and perogues at this time and I have no 
doubt but it might be navigated with boats of a considerable 
size in high water, it's banks appear to be from 8 to ten feet 
high and seldom overflow; from the quantity of water fur- 
nished bv this river, the appearance of the country, the direc- 
tion it pursues, and the situation of it's entrance, I have but 
little doubt but it takes it's source not far from the main body 
of the Suskashawan river, and that it is probably navigable 
150 Miles; perhaps not very distant from that river, should 
this be the case, it would afford a very favorable communica- 
tion to the Athebaskay country, from whence the British 
N.W. Company derive so large a portion of their valuable 
furs. Capt. Clark who ascended this river several miles and 
passed it above where it entered the hills informed me on his 
return that he found the general width ot the bed of the river 
about one hundred yards, where he passed the river the bed 
was 112 yards wide, the water was knee deep and 38 yard in 
width; the river which he could observe from the rising 
grounds for about 20 miles, bore a little to the East of North, 
there was a considerable portion of timber in the bottom lands 
of this river. Capt Clark also met with limestone on the 
surface of the earth in the course of his walk, he also saw a 
range of low mountains at a distance to the W of N, their 
direction being N.W. the country in the neighbo[rhood] of 
this river, and as far as the eye can reach, is level, fertile, open 
and beatifuU beyond discription. y-^ of a mile above the 
entrance of this river a large creek tails in which we called 
2000 Mile Creek. I sent Rubin Fields to examine it, he 
reported it to be a bold runing stream, it's bed 30 yards wide, 
we proceeded about 3 miles above this creek and encamped on 
the Star*! shore. I walked out a little distance and met with 2 
porcupines which were feeding on the young willow which 
grow in great abundance on all the sandbars; this anamal is 
exceedingly clumsv and not very watchfull I approached so 
near one of them before it percieved me that I touched it with 
[ 363 ] 


my espontooii. found the nest of a wild goose among some 
driftwood in the river from which we took three eggs, this is 
the only nest we have met with on driftwood, the usual posi- 
tion is the top of a broken tree, sometimes in the forks ot a 
large tree but almost invariably, from 15 to 20 feet or upwards 


Courses and distances May -?"* 1805. 

• ^ Miles 

N. 50° W. to a point of high timber in a bend Star"? 3^ 

S. 65° VV. to a point of high timber in the center of a bend on 

Lar'i side 2)^ 

N. 40. W. to a point of woodland Star'? side I. 

N. 55° W. to some dead timber in a Star'? bend 2^ 

South to the upper part of the high timber in a bend on the 

Lar"? side. 3 

S. 80° VV. to a point of woodland Star"! side i^ 

S. 85° W. to the commencement of the timber on the Lar'? side 

in a bend I }^ 

North. to the upper part of the high timber in a bend on the 

Star!', passing a sand point at j4 mile on Lar'? I ^2 

S. 65° W. to a point of woodland on the Lar? side. i^ 

S. 75? VV. to a point of woodland on the Star'? side, at the 
entrance of a large river on the Star? side, called 
Porcupine R. i ^ 

S. 45° VV. to the high timber on the lar"? side, passing the en- 
trance of 2000 mile Creek at i^ of a mile on 
Lar'? side. 3. 

N. 40° W. to some high timber on the Star"? side, just above an 
old channel of the river on the Star"? where we 
encamp? i^ 

Miles TS^ 

[Clark May 37,' Friday 1805 

we Set out reather later this morning than useal owing to 
weather being verry cold, a frost last night and the Therm! 
stood this morning at 26 above o. which is 6 degrees b[e]low 
freeseing. the ice that was on the Kettle left near the fire last 
night was }^ of an inch thick. The snow is all or nearly all 
off the low bottoms, the Hills are entirelev covered ; three of 
our party found in the back of a bottom 3 pieces of scarlet one 


brace in each, which had been left as a sacrifice near one of their 
swet houses, on the L.S. we passed to day a curious collection 
of bushes tied up in the shape of/rfavw about lo feet diamuter, 
which must have been left also by the natives as an offering to 
their medison which they [are] convinced protected or gave 
them relief near the place, the wind continued to blow hard 
from the West, altho not sufficently so to detain us. I walked 
on shore and killed an Elk & had him bucchered by the time 
the Perogus came up which was the usial time of dineing. 
The high lands are low and from 5 to 9 miles apart and there 
is evident marks of the bead [bed] of the river having been 
changed frequently but little appearance of the coal & burnt 
hills to day. Great numbers of Buff"alow, Elk, Deer, antilope, 
beaver, Porcupins, & water fowls seen to dav, such as, Geese, 
ducks of dif kinds, & a fiew Swan. I continued my walk on 
shore after dinner, and arrived at the mouth of a river on the 
S: Side, which appeared to be large, and I concluded to go up 
this river a few miles to examine it accordingly I set out 
North I mile thro wood or timbered bottom, 2 miles through 
a butifull leavel plain, and i mile over a high plain about 50 
feet higher than the bottom, & came to the little river, which 
1 found to be a butifull clear Stream of about 100 yds from 
bank to bank, (I waded this river at the narrowest part and 
made it 112 steps from bank to bank and at this place which 
was a kind of fording place the water was near Knee deep, 
and 38 steps wide, the bottom of a hard stiff" Black clay, I 
observed a Great perportion of timber in the bottoms of this 
river as far as I could See which was to the East of N. 18 or 
20 miles, it appears to be navagable at this time for canoes, 
and from appearances must be navagable a long distance for 
Perogus & boats in high water. This river we call Porcupines 
from the great number of those anamals found about it's 
mouth, a Short distance above about ]^ mile and on the 
Lar'' Side a large Creek falls in, which R. Fields went to 
examine & reports that it is a bold running stream 30 yds 
wide as this creek is 2000 miles up the Missouri we call it 
the 2000 mile Creek, we proceeded on 3 miles & camped on 
the S.S. here I joined Cap' Lewis who had in my absence 
[ 365 ] 


walk'' on the upper Side of Porcupine River for some distance. 
This river from its size & quantity of water must head at no 
great distance from the Saskashawan on this river I saw 
emence herds [of] Elk & BufFalow ik many deer & Porcupine. 
I also saw the top of a mountain which did not appear verry 
high to the West of N. & bore N W. 1 saw on the high 
land limestone & pebble. The countrey about the mouth 
of this river and as far as the eye can reach is butifuU open 
countrey. The greater part of the snow is melted. 

Course & Distance 3^ of May 1805 


N. 50° W 3:j^ to a point of high timber on the SfJ Side in a bend 

S. 65° W. 21/ to a point of high timber on the L"! S'J about the mid- 
dle of a bend L.S. 
N. 40? W I mile to a point of wood land Sf! Side 
N. 55 W 21^ miles to some dead timber in Sf! bend 
South 3 to the upper part of a timber in a bend to the Lar"* Side 

N. 80° W. y, to a p' of wood land Sff Side 
S. 85° W. ly to the commencement of a timber on the Lar'* Side 

in a bend 
North I i/^ to the upper part of the high timber in a bend on the 

Star'' Side passing a Sand point at '< a mile 
S. 65*? VV. i/^ to a point of wood Land on the L*" Side 
S 75? W. i^ to a point of wood land on the St"* Side at the mouth 

of a large river on the Sf" Side 
S 45^ W 3 m. to a high timber on the Lar'' Side passed the mouth 
of 2000 mile Creek at ^ of a. mile on the Lard Side 
N. 40? W. i^ to some high timber on the S. Side just above an old 

channel of the river Sf* Side, encamped 


^Lewis :] Saturday May ^"' 1805. 

We were detained this morning untill about 9 OC^ in order 
to repare the rudder irons of the red perogue which were 
broken last evening in landing; we then set out, the wind 
hard against us. I walked on shore this morning, the weather 
was more plesant, the snow has disappeared ; the frost seems 
to have effected the vegetation much less than could have been 
[ 366 1 


expected the leaves of the cottonwood the grass the box alder 
willow and the yellow flowering pea seem to be scarcely 
touched ; the rosebushes and honeysuckle seem to have sus- 
taned the most considerable injury. The country on both 
sides of the Missouri continues to be open level fertile and 
beautifull as tar as the eye can reach which from some of the 
eminences is not short of 30 Miles, the river bottoms are 
very extensive and contain a much greater proportion of timber 
than usual ; the fore part of this day the river was bordered 
with timber on both sides, a circumstance which is extreemly 
rare and the first which has occurred of any thing like the same 
extent since we left the Mandans. in the after part of the day 
we passed an extensive beautifull plain on the Star:' side which 
gradually ascended from the river. I saw immence quantities 
of buft'aloe in every direction, also some Elk deer and goats ; 
having an abundance of meat on hand I passed them without 
firing on them ; they are extreemly gentle the bull buffaloe 
particularly will scarcely give way to you. I passed several in 
the open plain within fifty paces, they viewed me for a moment 
as something novel and then very unconcernedly continued to 
feed. Cap! Clark walked on shore this evening and did not 
rejoin us untill after dark, he struck the river several miles 
above our camp and came down to us. we saw many beaver 
some [of] which the party shot, we also killed two deer today, 
much sign of the brown bear, passed several old Indian hunt- 
ing camps in the course of the day one of them contained 
two large lodges which were fortifyed with old driftwood and 
fallen timber; this fortification consisted of a circular fence of 
timber lade horizontally laping on and over laying each other 
to the bight off feet, these pounds are sometimes built from 
20 to 30 feet in diameter and covered over with the trunks 
and limbs of old timber, the usual construction of the lodges 
we have lately passed is as follows, three or more strong sticks 
the thickness of a man's leg or arm and about 12 feet long are 
attatched together at one end by a with of small willows, these 
are then set on end and spread at the base, forming a circle of 
ten twelve or 14 feet in diameter; sticks of driftwood and 
fallen timber of convenient size are now placed with one end 
[ 367 ] 


on the ground and the other resting against those which are 
secured together at top by the with and which support and 
give the form to the whole, thus the sticks are laid on untill 
they make it as thick as they design, usually about three 
ranges, each piece breaking or filling up the interstice of the 
two beneath it, the whole forming a connic figure about 10 feet 
high with a small apperture in one side which answers as a 
door, leaves bark and straw are sometimes thrown over the 
work to make it more complete, but at best it affords a very 
imperfect shelter particularly without straw which is the state 
in which we have most usually found them. 

Courses and distances of the 4"" of May 
S. 80° W. to a point of timber on the Star"* side 3. 

S. 72° VV. to a point of woodland on the Star'^ side river wide 

and filled with sandbars 5. 

S. 50° W. to the mouth of a small creek in a deep bend on Lar* 

side, a sand Island opposite i y^ 

N. 10° VV. to a point of woodland on the Lar^ side passing a 

Star^ point at I J/j^ miles 3. 

S. 45° W. to a willow point on the Star^ side, the river making 

a considerable bend to the N. an open plain on 

the Star^ 4 

S. 70° W. to a point of timbered land on the Star"? where we 

encamped. i y^ 

Miles 78^ 

At noon the sun was so much obscured that I could not 
obtain his maridian Altitude which I much wished in order to 
fix the latitude of the entrance of Porcupine river. Joseph 
Fields was very sick today with the disentary had a high fever 
I gave him a doze of Glauber salts, which operated very well, 
in the evening his fever abated and I gave him 2>^ drops of 

[^Clark:] May ^'/- Satturday 1805 

The rudder Irons of our large Perogue broke off last night, 
the replaceing of which detained us this morning untill 9 
oClock at which time we set out the wind a head from the 












west, The countrey on each side of the Missouri is a rich 
high and butifull the bottoms are extencive with a great deal 
of timber on them all the fore part of this day the wood land 
bordered the river on both Sides, in the after part a butifull 
assending plain on the St'' Side we camped on the St!" Side a 
little above, we passed a Small Creek on the L. Side near 
which I saw where an Indian lodge had been fortified many 
vear past. Saw great numbers of anamals of different kinds 
on the banks, I saw the black martin to day. in the evening 
I walk** on Shore on the Sf* Side & Struck the river Several 
miles above our camp tk did not get to Camp untiil some time 
after night, we have one man Sick. The river has been fall- 
ing for several days passed ; it now begins to rise a little, the 
rate of rise & fall is from one to j inches in 24 hours 

Course & Distance the 4'.'' of May 


S. 80° W. 3, to a point of timber on the Star^ Side. 

S. 72° W. 5. to a point of wood land on the Sf) Side, river wide 

& maney sand bars 
S. 50° VV I i/< to the mouth of a creek in a Deep bend to the Lard. 

Side, a sand Is") ops'! 
N 10° W. 3. to a point of wood Land on the Lar! Side passing a 

point S Side i '^ miles. 
S 45^ W. 4 to a willow point on the Star*! Side, the river makeing 

a considerable [bend] arround to the North an 

open plain 
S. 70° W. ly^ to a point of timbered land on the Star"" Side, where 

we encamped 

miles 18 

[[Lewis:] Sunday May $"" 1805 

A fine rnorning I walked on shore untiil after 8 A.M. 
when we halted for breakfast and in the course of my walk 
killed a deer which I carried about a mile and a halt to the 
river, it was in good order, soon after seting out the rudder 
irons of the white perogue were broken bv her runing fowl on 
a sawyer, she was however refitted in a few minutes with some 
tugs of raw hide and nales. as usual saw a great quantity of 

VOL. I. -24 [369] 


game today ; BufFaloe Elk and goats or Antelopes feeding in 
every direction ; we kill whatever we wish, the buffaloe fur- 
nish us with fine veal and fat beef, we also have venison and 
beaver tales when we wish them ; the flesh of the Elk and 
goat are less esteemed, and certainly are inferior, we have not 
been able to take any fish for some time past. The country is 
as yesterday beatifull in the extreme, saw the carcases of 
many Bufi^aloe lying dead along the shore partially devoured 
by the wolves and bear, saw a great number of white brant 
also the common brown brant, geese of the common kind 
and a small species of geese which differ considerably from 
the common Canadian goose ; ^ their neck head and beak are 
considerably thicker shorter and larger than the other in pro- 
portion to it's size, they are also more than a third smaller, 
and their note more like that of the brant or a young goose 
which has not perfectly acquired his notes, in all other 
rispects they are the same in colour habits and the number 
of feathers in the tale, they frequently also ascociate with the 
large geese when in flocks, but never saw them pared off with 
the large or common goose. The white brant ascociate in 
very large flocks, they do not appear to be mated or pared 
off as if they intended to raise their young in this quarter, I 
therefore doubt whether they reside here during the summer 
for that purpose, this bird is about the size of the common 
brown brant or two thirds of the common goose, it is not so 
long by six inches from point to point of the wings when 
extended as the other; the beak head and neck are also larger 
and stronger; their beak legs and feet are of a redish or flesh- 
coloured white, the eye is of moderate size, the puple of a 
deep sea green incircled with a ring of yellowish brown, it 
has sixteen feathers of equal length in the tale; their note 
differs but little from the common brant, their flesh much the 
same, and in my opinion preferable to the goose, the flesh is 
dark, they are entirely of a beatifull pure white except the 

^ of these birds, the small goose described is scientifically known as Bernicla 
hutckinsi; the Canadian goose is B. canadensis. The brown brant is B. brenta, and 
the white brant Chen hyperboreus ; the last-named bird goes much farther north to 
breed. — Ed. 

[ 370 1 


large feathers of the i'.' and second joints of the wings which 
are jut [jet] black, form and habits are the same with the 
other brants ; they sometimes ascociate and form one common 
flock. Capt Clark found a den of young wolves in the course 
of his walk today and also saw a great number of those 
anamals ; they are very abundant in this quarter, and are oi 
two species the small woolf or burrowing dog of the praries 
are the inhabitants almost invariably of the open plains; they 
usually ascociate in bands of ten or twelve sometimes more 
and burrow near some pass or place much frequented by 
game; not being able alone to take a deer or goat they are 
rarely ever found alone but hunt in bands ; they frequently 
watch and seize their prey near their burrows; in these bur- 
rows they raise their young and to them they also resort when 
pursued ; when a person approaches them they frequently 
bark, their note being precisely that of the small dog. they 
are of an intermediate size between that of the fox and dog, 
verv active fleet and delicately formed; the ears large erect 
and pointed the head long and pointed more like that of the 
fox; tale long and bushey ; the hair and fur also resembles 
the fox tho' is much coarser and inferior, they are ot a pale 
redish brown colour, the eye of a deep sea green colour small 
and piercing, their tallons are reather longer than those of 
the ordinary wolf or that common to the atlantic States, none 
of which are to be found in this quarter, nor I believe above 
the river Plat.' The large woolf found here is not as large as 
those of the atlantic states, they are lower and thicker made 
shorter leged. their colour which is not eflFected by the 
seasons, is a grey or blackish brown and every intermediate 
shade from that to a creen [cream] coloured white; these 
wolves resort [to] the woodlands and are also found in the 
plains, but never take refuge in the ground or burrow so tar as 
I have been able to inform myself we scarcely see a gang of 
buffaloe without observing a parsel of those faithfull shepherds 

1 A description of the coyote {Canit latrans), followed by that of the common 
wolf (C lupuj occiJenlalii). Cones thinks that Lewis is mistaken as to the habitat 
of the latter : " in some of its varieties, it was found in most parts of North America, 
though it is now exterminated from settled regions" (Z,. and C, i, p. 297). — Ed. 

[371 ] 


on their skirts in readiness to take care of the mamed wounded, 
the large wolf never barks, but howls as those of the atlantic 
states do. Cap" Clark and Drewyer killed the largest brown 
bear this evening which we have yet seen, it was a most 
tremendious looking anamal, and extreemly hard to kill not- 
withstanding he had five balls through his lungs and five 
others in various parts he swam more than half the distance 
acoss the river to a sandbar, & it was at least twenty minutes 
before he died ; he did not attempt to attack, but fled and 
made the most tremendous roaring from the moment he was 
shot. We had no means of weighing this monster; Capt. 
Clark thought he would weigh 500 lb' for my own part I 
think the estimate too small by 100 lb! he measured 8. Feet 
7^ Inches from the nose to the extremety of the hind feet, 
5 F. 10^4 In' arround the breast, i F. 11. I. arround the 
middle of the arm, & 3.F. 11. 1, arround the neck; his tallons 
which were five in number on each foot were 4^^ Inches in 
length, he was in good order, we therefore divided him 
among the party and made them boil the oil and put it in a 
cask for future uce ; the oil is as hard as hogs lard when cool, 
much more so than that of the black bear, this bear differs 
from the common black bear in several respects; it's tallons 
are much longer and more blont, it's tale shorter, it's hair 
which is of a redish or bey brown, is longer thicker and finer 
than that of the black bear ; his liver lungs and heart are much 
larger even in proportion with his size ; the heart particularly 
was as large as that of a large Ox. his maw was also ten 
times the size of black bear, and was filled with flesh and fish, 
his testicles were pendant from the belly and placed four 
inches assunder in seperate bags or pouches, this animal also 
feeds on roots and almost every species of wild fruit. 

The party killed two Elk and a Buffaloe today, and my dog 
caught a goat, which he overtook by superior fleetness, the 
goat it must be understood was with young and extreemly 
poor, a great number of these goats are devowered by the 
wolves and bear at this season when they are poor and passing 
the river from S.W. to N.E. they are very inactive and 
easily taken in the water, a man can out swim them with great 

[ 37^ ] 


ease; the Indians take them in great numbers in the river at 
this season and in autumn when they repass to the S.VV. 

Courses and distances of May s'!" 1805. Ml'- 

S. 70° W. to the willows on the lower point of an Island near 

the Star^ shore, opposite a low bluff 3 

S. 72° VV. to some high timber on a projecting point on the 
Star*? side opposite a po' Lar:! passing the upper 
part of IsH at 2 miles 2^ 

S. 30° W. to a point of woodland on the Star") opposite a low 

bluff on Lar-! side 2»^ 

N. 48° W. to a point of woodland on the Lar"! side 2J^ 

N. 45? W. to the extremity of the sand bar from the Larl point i^ 
South. to a willow point on the Starl side short of which 

we encamped on Star'' 5 

Miles 17. 

Point of observation N° 9. 

On the Lar'? shore near the fourth course of this dav, observed merid- 
ian Altitude of the ©'. L. L. with Octant by the back observation to 
be 68" 47'; the latitude deduced from which is 45 46' 5'.'6. I do 
think this observation can be depended on as it was reather late before I 
could commence it, the sun was about to decline or perhaps had declined 
a few minutes. 

tClark G 5'* o/M<y Sunday 1805 

We set out verry early and had not proceeded far before 
the rudder Irons of one of the Perogus broke which detained 
us a short time Cap" Lewis walked on shore this morning 
and killed a Deer, after hrackfast I walked on shore Saw 
great numbers of Buffalow & Elk Saw also a Den of young 
wolves, and a number of Grown Wolves in every direction, 
the white & Grev Brant is in this part of the Missouri I shot 
at the white brant but at so great a distance I did not kill, 
The Countrev on both sides is as yesterday handsom & tertiie. 
The river rising 6c current Strong & in the evening we saw a 
Brown or Grisley beare on a sand beech, I went out with one 
man Geo Drewyer & Killed the bear, which was verry large 
and a turrible looking animal, which we found verry hard to 
I 373 ] 


kill we Shot ten Balls into him before we killed him, & 5 of 
those Balls through his lights This animal is the largest of 
the carnivorous kind I ever saw we had nothing that could 
way him, I think his weight may be stated at 500 pounds, he 
measured 8 feet 7^ In! from his nose to the extremity of the 
Toe, 5 feet iqi^ In' arround the breast, i feet 11 Ins: around 
the middle of the arm, 3 feet 11 In! arround the neck his 
tallents was 4 Inches & ^ long, he was [in] good order, 
and appeared verry different from the common black bear in 
as much as his tallents {(alon or nail) were blunt, his tail short, 
his liver & lights much larger, his maw ten times as large and 
contained meat or flesh & fish only, we had him skined and 
divided, the oile tried up & put in Kegs for use. we camped 
on the Sta'^ Side, our men killed three Elk and a Buffalow 
to day, and our Dog cought an antilope a fair race, this animal 
appeared verry pore & with young. 

Course & Distance 5''' of May 

S. 70° W. 3 miles to the willows on the lower point of an Island 

near the S'^ Side opposit a low bluff. 
S. 72° W. 21^ miles to some high timber on a projecting point on the 

Sta'? Side ops'! a p' L.S., passed the Is''.' at 2 miles 
S. 30° W. 2 1/^ miles to a point of wood land on the Star** Side ops'! 

a low Bluff L. Side 
N. 48° W 2 J^ miles to a point of wood land on the Lard Side 
N. 45*? W. I 3^ miles to the extremity of the sand bar from the Lar"* 

South 5 miles to a willow point on the Star'' Side short of which 

we encamped 
miles 17 




w^H-J «2